In Haunani-Kay Trask’s “‘Lovely Hula Hands’: Corporate Tourisms and the Prostitution of Hawaiian Culture” the author describes the modern life on the Hawaii from the Native Hawaiian point of view. In spite of the stereotyped image of Hawaii as the beautiful dreamland the life of Hawaiian residents is cruel and poor.
According to the facts Native-Hawaiians are in the kind of trap. Boom of tourist industry gave rise to the high living costs on Hawaii and ruined the traditional indigenous life-style. Hawaiians can not live as they lived in pre-tourism period, but they can not meet new life standards too. There are three ways to survive for native Hawaiian on their Motherland: to work for tourism industry, to serve in the Army on the military base or to live almost homeless getting unemployment benefit. Young Hawaiians leave Hawaii due to the absence of any prospect.
Trask compares culture exploitation with prostitution, emphasizes the femininity of Hawaiian culture and likens tourist agencies to the pimp, which makes prostitute to sell her beauty. It is worth mentioning that the Native culture was banned from 1900 and its revival in 1970s was closely connected with tourism. Exotic language, costumes and dances turned to the lure for tourists. Trask declares that commodification of hula dances made them “smutty and salacious rather than powerfully erotic”, and the word “aloha” that means the familial love to people and land became almost meaningless because of its often using. Tourist agencies, airlines, advertising magazines have the common management and try to attract more tourists. Rich foreign companies build expensive hotels and exclude Hawaiians from their own land.
Thus, the author blames corporative tourism in destruction of the Hawaiian land, culture and people.
Charles Derber’s “One world under business” is a chapter from the book “People Before Profit: The New Globalization in an Age of Terror, Big Money, and Economic Crisis”. Derber researches the impact of globalization on society. He declares that global trade accelerates the division of the world economics into “cores” and “peripheries”. Such tendencies existed in ancient world and came to 20th century. Wealth moves from peripheries to cores. Inequality grows within and between nations. Derber also mentions that the greatest wars of the world have been about trade and economic issues. Thus, global trade does not link trading nations but increases wealth while expanding poverty.
Three intertwined institutions obtain the great power due to globalization: financial markets and transnational companies, business-oriented regimes and “global governments” such as the World Trade Organization. Derber asks whether democracy and globalization are both simultaneously possible and answers “no” because corporate and financial interests are contrary to democracy. Then Derber says that no business could exist without government. It is a great mistake to believe that business and the markets run themselves. Quite the reverse, business always tried to protect its interests with the help of politics. “There can be no market without state power establishing, regulating, and militarily defending property.”
Furthermore, political and economical systems all over the integrate into worldwide business civilization, which contradicts not only the democracy but the principles of market economy. Every economic theory implies the competition is the base of free market. However new globalized economy shows two or three main companies in every industry that are partnered within each industry and between different industries.
Thus, corporative leaders create new elite that interferes in transnational political and lobbying associations. Here Derber describes the difference between market democracy and real democracy. It is very simple: real democracy based on the principle of one person, one vote. The principle of market democracy is one dollar, one vote, and “it gives the rich far more political representation.” The umpire system based on legal equality among all nations appears our days, but this system places the USA at the center of globalization regime and this situation creates enormous instability.
The first article, “Lovely Hula Hands” can be analyzed with a view to microsociology because it concerned with daily human social interactions. Personality (or a small group of people), its individual components, social status, social role and social interrelation take the central place of the article. The author does not generalize and abstract social trend but describes the real situation, which could be typical, however, for some regions under certain circumstances. The segregation of the Native Hawaiian and tourists is the result of cultural differences of patriarchal Western culture and the culture of Eastern Polynesia. Tourist industry neglects native people but uses them for making money. Incidentally the tourist region of the Third World countries are on the same situation, so this phenomena is widely spread all over the world and its sociological research could have the great practical importance.
Just in contrary, the second article concentrates on the evolution of social structure, so it relates to macrosociology. “One world for business” is reckoned of some account in socioeconomics because it contains sociological analysis of the economic phenomena and tries to answer in sociological terms to the questions usually addressed to economists. It is important to understand that Charles Derber writes for general audiences and his article contains not only sociological critiques but the product of the sociological imagination and high level of theoretical abstraction. Nevertheless his contribution to the modern sociology is significant.
However, the relation between two selected articles is more significant because it displays the connection of micro- and macrosociology. According the theory of structuration by Anthony Giddens, “the social structures constrain the actions of individual agents.”
These articles supplement each other because they describe the one and same phenomena: globalization. “Lovely Hula Hands” shows the impact of globalization on the person or a small group of people, meantime “One world for business” describes the influence of globalization into the whole global society. Native Hawaiian people are individual agents whose actions forced by social structure. Just that social structure is the object for Derber’s macrosociological research.
Conclusion: the articles “Lovely Hula Hands” and “One world under business” have a n outstanding sociological significance because they concern to the different branches of sociology and show the interrelation between them.
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