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Work Design

Introduction

In the contemporary business environment, work design plays a crucial role because it influences consistently the job satisfaction and, therefore, influences the effectiveness and productivity of work of employees. In actuality, the job satisfaction is of the paramount importance for modern companies and business because employees need to feel being satisfied with their job to maintain positive performance at both individual and organizational levels. At the same time, the maintenance of the high level of the job satisfaction is possible through the development of an effective work design which contributes to the higher employees’ satisfaction with their work, creates comfortable workplace environment and leads to the overall positive performance of employees. In such a context, it is possible to refer to practical application of the concept of job design in relation to a HGV lorry driver and a primary school teacher. Basically, each job has its own peculiarities and needs specific work design. The latter implies the use of effective approaches to work design to reach the highest level of the job satisfaction. In case of a HGV lorry driver the socio-technical system can be applied in terms of the work design, whereas in case of a primary school teacher the human relation approach may be quite efficient but it is necessary to remember that each job has specific needs that determine the choice of the work design.

Work design: a HGV lorry driver vs. a primary school teacher

As it has been already mentioned above, work design plays a crucial role in the contemporary business environment, individual and organizational performance. In this respect, the work design related to the job of a HGV lorry driver and a primary school teacher is not an exception. At the same time, theoretical approaches applied in regard to either of the aforementioned jobs differ. In actuality, a HGV lorry driver is a job that implies the high professional level of the manager because he or she needs to have extensive knowledge related to his or her job. This is why the use of the socio-technical system in terms of the work design of a HGV lorry driver may be very efficient and contribute to the positive performance of the manager (Russell, 115). At this point, it is important to lay emphasis on the fact that a bookshop keeper should have not only technical skills of managing a bookshop but also he or she needs to have well-developed social skills to communicate with subordinates and customers of the bookshop. In this regard, the socio-technical system is a perfect system that can optimize the work design of a HGV lorry driver because the socio-technical system aims at optimizing the operation of social and technical system. In actuality, this means that the work design grounded on the socio-technical system implies that a HGV lorry driver will perform his or her professional, managerial duties perfectly getting reward and motivation respective to his or her work. At the same time, the manager should get a positive feedback from consumers and the company should encourage the manager to develop his or her social skills to establish positive company-customer relationships. Through the establishment of positive company-customer relationships the HGV lorry driver can get a higher level of job satisfaction compared to the job satisfaction he or she may or may not feel if he or she has underdeveloped social skills. As a result, the HGV lorry driver feels satisfied with his or her job, whereas the bookshop benefits from the effective work of the manager.

As for the primary school teacher, the use of human relations approach may be particularly efficient compared to other approaches to work design (Grant, 9). Basically, a primary school teacher has to develop positive interpersonal relationships with colleagues, students, their parents, and administration of the school. This implies that a primary school teacher should be experienced in human relations. In such a context, the administration of the schools should create conditions for the development of work design grounded on human relations approach to facilitate the work of the primary school teacher, to create favorable conditions for the development of positive relationships with colleagues, students, their parents and other people. In this regard, the human relations approach is particularly effective because it implies the improvement of performance through good human relations, when the primary school teacher feels the support of colleagues and administration and receives positive feedback from people he or she is working with. Furthermore, managers of the schools should focus on needs and wants of the primary school teacher and use democratic style of work to keep the primary school teacher motivated and satisfied with his or her job. In addition, the primary school teacher is involved in the group work in terms of the human relations approach that implies his or her close cooperation with his or her colleagues as well as students, their parents and community. In such a way, it is possible to reach the high level of job satisfaction and positive performance of the primary school teacher.

Motivators: a HGV lorry driver vs. a primary school teacher

The use of different approaches to work design being applied to the HGV lorry driver and the primary school teacher implies the use of different motivators. Naturally, it is possible to use one and the same motivators for both the HGV lorry driver and the primary school teacher but not all motivators will work equally efficient in regard to the HGV lorry driver and the primary school teacher (Caudron, 30).

In actuality, the use of material or financial rewards may be efficient motivators in relation to both professionals and these motivators are applicable in terms of both socio-technical and human relations approaches. The use of financial rewards may be very efficient but this motivator is relatively limited because it is impossible to use bonuses or rise of salaries for the HGV lorry driver and the primary school teacher permanently as the main motivator. Eventually, this motivator will not work because the effect of this motivator decreases respectively to the frequency at which it is used.

In this respect, the use of other material and psychological motivators is important. Speaking about motivators similar to both the HGV lorry driver and the primary school teacher, it is possible to use positive feedback from the part of managers which can encourage both professionals to work better.

Basically, the positive feedback from managers have a positive effect on the job satisfaction but managers should use this motivator carefully to ensure that the positive feedback is grounded on some positive accomplishments in the work of the HGV lorry driver and the primary school teacher.

As for motivators specific for either job, it should be said that the HGV lorry driver may need special equipment of his workplace, which can facilitate his or her work and to increase the productivity of work. Managers can install additional equipment to facilitate the work of the HGV lorry driver and motivate him or her to work better through higher job satisfaction. In addition, the work hours of the HGV lorry driver should be limited to avoid his or her physical exhaustion (Hackman and Wageman, 312).

In this regard, the creation of comfortable environment and conditions is particularly important because comfortable environment and conditions allow the HGV lorry driver to have a sound rest and resume his or her work being full of energy that naturally increases the level of job satisfaction.

In case of the primary school teacher material rewards may be effective but they are relatively limited compared to the HGV lorry driver. In terms of human relations approach, managers should focus on the use of non-material, psychological motivators (Oswald, 800). In this respect, managers can use positive feedback for positive accomplishments of the primary school teacher. In addition, managers can organize competitions among primary school teachers and appoint rewards to best primary school teachers that will motivate them to work better to prove that they are worthy the reward they have obtained, whereas primary school teachers, who have failed to obtain the reward, will try to do their best to obtain rewards in the future. Furthermore, the primary school teachers do need the support from the part of parents of students and from the part of the community. In this respect, the administration of the school should focus on the development of close school-community relations to facilitate the communication and interaction between the primary school teacher, on the one hand, and parents and the community, on the other.

Job satisfaction: a HGV lorry driver vs. a primary school teacher

The high level of job satisfaction is essential for both the HGV lorry driver and the primary school teacher. However, the high level of job satisfaction is reached in different ways in case of using the socio-technical system in relation to the lorry driver and the human relations approach to the primary school teacher. In this respect, it should be said that the job satisfaction of the HGV lorry driver is mainly reached through the use of material motivators which are backed up with non-material, psychological motivators. The technical aspect of the work of the HGV lorry driver is extremely important and often it dominates over social aspect of his or her work. However, the latter cannot be rejected but used proportionally to keep the HGV lorry driver motivated.

In case of the primary school teacher material rewards do not always lead to the job satisfaction. The use of human relations approach implies the focus on psychological rewards and motivators which are very important for the primary school teacher. The primary school teacher does need to feel a positive feedback and see positive outcomes of his or her work. In such a way, the primary school teacher can reach the high level of job satisfaction.

Conclusion

Thus, taking into account all above mentioned, it is possible to conclude that the work design affects consistently the performance of professionals. At the same time, either job needs the use of specific approaches to work design to maximize the job satisfaction of employees and to keep them motivated to work better. In this respect, the example of the HGV lorry driver and the primary school teacher has proved the fact that the use of different approaches to the work design can be effective if the approaches are chosen properly. The use of socio-technical system is effective in relation to the lorry driver but it is likely to fail if it is applied to the primary school teacher, for whom the use of human relations approach is more effective compared to the HGV lorry driver.

Works Cited:

Caudron, S. “Jobs disappear: When work becomes more important.” Workforce, 79(1), January, 2000, p.30.
Grant, P. C. “Job descriptions: What’s missing.” Industrial Management, 39(6), Nov/Dec, 1997, p. 9.
Hackman, R.J. and R. Wageman. “Total Quality Management: Empirical, Conceptual, and Practical Issues.” Administrative Science Quarterly. 40(2), 1995, p.309-318.
HR Guide to the Internet. Job Analysis: Overview. 2001. Retrieved on November 6, 2007
Oswald, F. L. “Job Analysis: Methods, Research, and Applications for Human Resource Management in the New Millennium.” Personnel Psychology, 56(3), 2003, p.800.
Russell, G. Introduction to Philosophy. New York: Random House, 2003.