Morality that concerns business management is traditionally called management ethics. At the same time as every company has its own ethical standard, common management ethics are mainly the same in every industry. This sort of ethical realization exists as an unwritten code, though literal moral papers also tae place. The main goal of business ethics is to treat all workers of the organization, clients, partners and investors rightly and fairly. It is well-known that by following an ethical code, business of the company will develop. When a management team adheres to business ethics, workers become motivated and an environment at work becomes motivational.
Concerning day-to-day business, it is possible to say that working ethically means adhering to law, opposing others in a straightforward and open manner, and performing every day duties without dishonesty. Many organizations today update codes of conduct as a result of some corporate scandals that took place in the past. It is not unusual for an organization to update written documents on a yearly basis. However, after this paper has been updated, every stuff member ought to read and realize it. All workers should keep these rules in mind. Those who do not follow the regulations of the company are usually dismissed. Though managers need to follow the same codes as employees, they also have additional obligations.
Practically every decision that, which is made on a daily basis includes ethical decision. Managers and owners of the companies should always keep this in mind. By creating a nice ethical example for all staff, managers and directors may simply encourage all workers to follow offered ethics. Some organizations suggest specialized ethics courses that should be completed before the job acceptance. Often, managers who switch organizations are asked to follow a totally new and different code of behavior. It does not mean that all preceding codes of behavior need to be elapsed, but supplementary ethics should be taught. Ethics are not interchangeable from state to state. However, usually different cultures all over the globe accept different ethical rules. So, anyone who wishes to move to another state may have to get used to cultural and ethical differences.
Ethics – from Past to Present
Ethics generally includes learning what is wrong or right, and then making the right choice. The majority of ethical dilemmas at the organizations are not usually the issue of “Should Mike lie to his manager?” Many scholars say there’s at all times a right thing to focus on a moral standard. Others scholars think the right thing to do always depends on the circumstances – eventually it is up to the worker. Philosophers have been talking about ethics for 2500 years, since the times of Plato and Socrates. Some scholars consider rising moral beliefs to be state of the art issues. In the other words, what becomes a moral guideline nowadays is usually treated to a law, rule or regulation tomorrow. Values that advise how people should behave are considered moral principles. Declarations how these principles are utilized are conventionally called moral principles.
So what is “Business Ethics”?
The concept has come to mean dissimilar things to dissimilar human beings, but frequently it is what is right or not in the firm concerning effects of goods and in ties with stakeholders. Wallace and Pekel state thoughts about business ethics are vital during the years of basic alteration – times like those faced today by businesses (Pekel, Wallace, 2006). In times of change, molar values that used to be taken for granted are now being questioned. A lot of values are no longer important and necessary. As a result, there are no obvious moral regulations to guide managers through hard ethic dilemmas about what is good or bad. Attention to ethics at work sensitizes managers and employees to how they should behave maybe the most significant, attention to ethics helps guarantee that when directors and managers are fighting in times of crisis, they preserve strong moral regulations. However, attention to business ethics provides many other advantages. It is important to pay attention to the fact that business ethics, with its attention on “the right thing,” merely states the clear “be good”, so some human beings don’t take business ethics sincerely. For so many people these issues are clear and understandable, but during times of stress they can go right out the door. As a result, business ethics may be a strong preventive pill.
Two Large Areas of Business Ethics
- Managerial misbehavior. Two scholars Madsen and Shafritz, in the work “Essentials of Business Ethics” (1990) assert that “managerial misbehavior” involves “illegal, unethical practices of managers or firms, as well as the reasons of terrible behaviors and ways to eliminate them” (Madsen, Shafritz, 1990). There have been many books written about managerial misbehavior, forcing people to think that business ethics is simply a matter of preaching the notion of what is right. More traditionally business ethics is an issue of dealing with problems that have no distinct indication of what is right and what is not.
- Moral mazes. Another area of management ethics is moral mazes of business. It includes many ethical dilemmas that managers and owners of companies must deal with every day. These problems are potential conflicts of interest, unlawful usage of resources, mismanagement of agreements and so on.
Business Ethics is Today a Management Discipline
Business ethics is today considered as management discipline, particularly since the origin of the social responsibility society in the 1960s. Social awareness movements raised expectations of businesses to utilize their enormous financial and social power to address social troubles like poverty, environmental protection and equal rights. A growing number of human beings declared that because businesses were making earnings from utilizing the country’s sources, these businesses owed it to the country to work to develop the whole society. Many scholars, business schools and managers have understood this constituency, and in their operations have replaced the term “stockholder” with “stakeholder,” attempting to involve employees, clients, suppliers and the whole community. The appearance of ethics of the organizations is like many other management disciplines. For instance, organizations understood they needed to manage a more positive image to the society and so the new notion of public relations was created. Companies understood that they required better management of human resources and so the new discipline of human resources was created. As commerce became harder, complex and dynamic, firms understood they needed a guidance to guarantee the work supported the common good and did not hurt individuals – so business ethics was made. So, today 90 percent of business schools include different trainings in business ethics. Nowadays, ethics at work may be managed with the help of usage of codes of ethics, policies and procedures, procedures to cope with ethical dilemmas, ethics training and so on.
Ten Myths Concerning Management Ethics
Business ethics at work is about prioritizing moral values and guaranteeing behaviors are united with moral values. However, myths abound about management ethics all the time. Some of them evolve from traditional uncertainty about the birth and idea of ethics. Other myths evolve from narrow views of ethical problems.
- Myth: Management ethics is more the matter of religion than business. Diane Kirrane, in “Managing Values: A Systematic Approach to Business Ethics,” declares that “changing human beings’ values isn’t the goal of an ethics program – managing values is …” (Kirrane, 1990).
- Myth: If the workers are ethical the company and leaders do not have to pay attention to ethics. Actually, many ethical problems faced by directors at work are really complex. Some scholars tell that people know when they have an important ethical conflict when there a) major value conflicts among interests, b) actual alternatives that are quite reasonable, and c) noteworthy consequences on stakeholders. Diane Kirrane asserts that when the theme of ethics arises, human beings are fast to recollect honesty and good manners (Kirrane, 1990). But when presented with hard ethical matters, most individuals understand there’s a wide “gray area” when attempting to utilize ethical ideas.
- Myth: Management ethics is a science best led by scholars and philosophers. A lack of participation of managers in management ethics discussions has led people to think that business ethics is a movement, having nothing in common with the daily work of companies. Some people believe business ethics is mainly a hard philosophical discussion or a religion. However, ethics is a management science with a theory that involves some realistic tools. Ethics management programs also have realistic usage in many spheres of management areas.
- Myth: Business ethics is unnecessary. It only declares the clear: “behave!” Many human beings think that rules of ethics are rather unnecessary because they represent moral values which all people should obviously seek. However, the moral value of codes of ethics to a firm is its main concern and focus regarding specific moral values at work. For instance, it’s clear that all human beings should be sincere. However, if a firm is struggling around ongoing occasions of dishonesty at work, a priority on sincerity is extremely timely – and honesty has to be enumerated in that firm’s code of ethics. A code of ethics is an organic tool that alters with the requirements of society and the company.
- Myth: Management ethics is an issue of the good workers preaching to bad people. Some scholars claim a moral high ground whilst crying for the bad state of business and its managers. Nevertheless, those human beings well versed in managing companies understand that good human beings may do bad things, predominantly when stressed. Managing ethics at work involves all staff to help each other stay ethical and to cope with stressful ethical problems.
- Myth: Business ethics is new notion. Many scholars think that business ethics is a recent trend due to the increased attention to ethics in management books. However, this sort of ethics was discussed about 2,000 years ago. Business ethics achieved more attention in the past year due to the social movement that began in the 1960s.
- Myth: Ethics can not ever be managed. Management ethics is always managed, but usually not directly. For instance, the behavior of the company’s founder or director has a strong moral influence on behavior of employees. Company’s priorities (earnings maximization, expanding market share, reducing costs) may be strong influences on morality. Rules openly influence behaviors to become more ethical, usually in a manner that creates the common good and reduces harm to the society or community. Some people are really skeptical about business ethics, believing that managers can not manage moral values in a firm. Modern scholars assert that management, in any case, is a value system. Skeptics may see the great influence of some codes of ethics, like the “10 Commandments” or the U.S. Constitution. Codes may be extremely powerful in the smaller communities as well.
- Myth: Social responsibility and management ethics and are the same thing. The social responsibility movement is a single aspect of the general discipline of business ethics. Works and books about social responsibility usually don’t address realistic issues of managing ethics at work.
- Myth: If firm is not in trouble with the law, it is ethical. A company may usually be unethical, yet work within the limits of the law. Nevertheless, breaking the law traditionally begins with unethical behavior that has gone concealed.
- Myth: Managing ethics at work has little practical application. Managing ethics at work includes identifying values to guide behaviors in the company, and establishing related policies to guarantee those behaviors are conducted. Ethics management is very significant in other management practices like managing diversity, strategic planning and Total Quality Management.
10 Advantages of Managing Ethics at Work
Many workers are used to reading of the moral advantages of attention to management ethics.
Nevertheless, there are other sorts of advantages, as well.
- Attention to management ethics has already considerably improved society.
Several decades ago, kids in our motherland had to work 16-hour days. Employees were fired based on characters. Power was demonstrated through threats and harassment. So, society wanted businesses to put high value on identical rights. Antitrust laws were created. Government companies were created. Laws and regulations were made.
- Ethics assist in retaining a moral course in unstable times.
Wallace and Pekel tell that attention to management ethics is vital during times of fundamental change (Pekel, Wallace, 2006). During hard times, there are usually no distinct moral regulations to guide managers through conflicts. Continuing attention to management ethics sensitizes managers and staff to how they wish to act – time after time.
- Ethics develop strong teamwork and efficiency.
Ethics programs common workers behaviors with top priority moral values preferred by managers of the company. Often, a firm finds shocking difference between its preferred moral values and the values really reflected by behaviors at work. Continuing attention regarding moral values at work creates openness, honesty and community – vital components of strong teams at work. Workers feel a strong connection between their moral values and values of the company. They work with strong motivation.
- Ethics programs support staff growth.
Attention to ethics at work assists staff in facing reality. Workers feel total confidence they may admit and cope with whatever comes their way.
- Moral programs are just like insurance policy – they assist in guarantying that policies are lawful.
There are a growing number of lawsuits in regard to workers matters of company’s services or goods on stakeholders. These principles are traditionally utilized to present main moral issues to become legislation. Concentration on ethics guarantees highly ethical procedures at work. It’s much better to acquire the cost of mechanisms to protect moral practices now to acquire costs of proceedings later. The key aim of well-made staff procedures is to guarantee ethical treatment of workers, in matters of hiring, firing evaluating, firing. Modern ethics scholars assert that a manager may be subject to suit for violating the contract…, so the crack between company’s culture and
- Moral management programs assist in avoiding criminal acts and may reduce fines.
Ethics programs try to notice ethical matters and violations as soon as possible, so they may be addressed. Sometimes, when a firm knows about actual or potential violation and does not react, it may be treated as a criminal act. Nevertheless, the guidelines potentially reduce fines if a firm has obviously made an attempt to operate ethically.
- Ethics ideas may supervise values associated with diversity management, quality management and strategic planning.
Ethics ideas describe favored moral values and ensure that organizational behaviors are associated with those moral values. This attempt includes recording the ethic values, developing procedures to bring into line behaviors with ethic values, and then training all personnel concerning these procedures. Overall attempt is extremely useful for some programs at work that need behaviors to be associated with moral values. Ethics management ideas are very helpful for managing strategic values – expand market share, reduce costs. Ethics programs are also helpful in managing diversity.
- Ethics management programs offer a strong civic image. Attention to ethics offers nice public relations. Though ethics should not take place only for grounds of public relations. But the fact that a company frequently pays attention to ethics can depict a strong positive image to the society. People see those firms as valuing people more than earnings, as striving to work with honor. Aligning behavior with ethic values is fundamental to efficient public relations and marketing. < BR
- General benefits of moral programs:
Some scholars assert that ethical values at work legitimizes managerial actions, makes stronger the consistency and balance of the organization’s culture, enhances trust in relationships between human beings, supports better steadiness in standards and qualities of goods, and creates better sensitivity to the influence of the firm’s moral values and messages.
- Last – and most – official concentration on management ethics at work is the best thing to do.
Benefits of Managing Ethics as a Management Program
There are so many advantages in officially managing ethics as a program, rather than as a unique attempt when it is required. Ethics programs:
- Institute organizational roles to supervise ethics.
- Schedule continuing evaluation of ethics requirements.
- Create necessary operating moral values.
- Align behaviors with ethic values.
- Create consciousness to ethical issues.
- Unite ethical rules with decision making.
- Structure tools to coping with ethical problems.
- Facilitate continuing estimation and updates to the program.
- Help convince staff that attention to management ethics is not simply a hasty reaction done to get out of problem or enhance public image.
Eight Rules for Managing Ethics at Work
These guidelines guarantee the ethics management program is done in a significant fashion:
- Understand that managing ethics is a process.
Management ethics is a subject of moral values and associated behaviors. Moral values are discerned with the help of the process of continuing reflection. So, ethics programs may seem much more process oriented than many other management practices. Managers are skeptical of process oriented activities, and so they prefer processes concentrated on deliverables with measurements. Yet, smart executives realize that the deliverables of usual management practices are simply physical representations of extremely process oriented procedures. For instance, the procedure of strategic planning is far more noteworthy than the plan created by the process. The same concerns moral management. Ethics programs may generate deliverables – codes, policies and procedures, meeting minutes, newsletters. However, the most vital part of an ethics management is the dialogue that creates deliverables.
- The bottom line of program is accomplishing favored behaviors at work.
As with every management practice, the essential outcome is behaviors favored by the company. The finest of ethical values are comparatively worthless unless they generate fair behaviors at work. That is why practices that create lists of moral values must generate policies, procedures that translate ethic values to suitable behaviors.
- The finest method to handle ethical problems is to avoid them in the first place.
That is why, practices like evolving codes of ethics are so imperative. Their development sensitizes staff to moral considerations and reduces the opportunities of unethical behavior taking place first of all.
- Make moral decisions in groups.
This advice creates better decisions by including a variety of perspectives, and increases the reliability of the decision making process and outcome by lowing suspicion of unjust bias.
- Mix ethics management with other practices.
When creating the values statement throughout strategic planning, involve moral values preferred in the company. When evolving personnel policies impact on what ethic values you’d like to be the most imperative in the company’s culture and then create policies to make these behaviors.
- Utilize cross-functional teams when evolving and applying the ethics program.
It’s fundamental that the firm’s staff have a feeling of participation in the ethics management program if they are to stick to its moral values. So, engage staff in creating and applying the program.
- Estimate forgiveness.
This may sound more religious, but it’s almost certainly the most significant part of management practice. An ethics program may initially enlarge the quantity of ethical issues to work with because human beings are more responsive to their occurrence. As a result, there may be more events to address unethical behavior of the workers. The central component for staying ethical is attempting to be ethical. So, manager has to help human beings see and address their failures and support them to carry on working ethically.
- Note that attempting to work ethically and making several mistakes is far better than not attempting at all.
Some firms have become well-known as companies working in a very ethical manner. Regrettably, it seems that when a firm attains so strong public image, it is put on a podium by business ethics writers. All firms depend on human beings and human beings are not perfect. Nevertheless, when an error is made by any of well-known firms, the organization has an actually long way to fall. In a modern critical society, these companies are accused of being insincere and they are humiliated by critics. As a result, some managers may fear to announce new ethics management program. This is actually unlucky. It is the attempt which counts and gives peace of mind – not getting some superman status in public (McNamara).
Six Main Roles and Duties in Ethics Management
Depending on the extent of the company, some roles may prove helpful in managing ethics at work. These may be around the clock roles assumed by someone in the companies. Small firms certainly will not have the resources to put into practice every following role utilizing different individuals in the firm. Conversely, the next functions points out everyday jobs that should be included in the firm’s policy.
- The firm’s chief executive should totally support the program.
If a chief executive isn’t totally behind the ethic management program, staff will definitely notice – and this obvious insincerity may cause cynicism that the firm may be worse off than having no official ethics management program at all. So, the chief executive has to declare the program, and support its development and execution. Also, the leader needs time after time to aspire to lead in an ethical manner. If a failure has happen, admit it.
- Think about creating an ethics committee at the board level.
This committee would be in charge to control the development and success of the ethics management approach.
- Think about developing the special ethics management committee.
It would be charged with putting into practice and administrating a program, including administrating and training policies, and coping with ethical problems. The committee should consist of several senior officers.
- Think about developing an ethics officer.
This job is becoming more usual, chiefly in large and modern companies. The ethics officer is traditionally trained about issues of ethics at work, predominantly about resolving ethical problems.
- Think about creating of a position of an ombudsperson.
The ombudsperson is accountable to help coordinate a progress of the policies to institutionalize ethic values in the company. This job often is directly accountable for coping with ethical problems by interpreting moral policies.
- One human being must eventually be in charge for managing the ethics business program.
Ethics Tools: Codes of Ethics
According to the scholar Wallace, “A credo commonly depicts the highest ethic values to which the firm aspires to the occupation. It contains the “thou shalts.” A code of ethics specifies the moral rules of work. It’s the “thou shalt nots” (Pekel, Wallace, 2006). Some business scholars do not agree that codes have any real value. Conventionally, they say that too much stress is placed on codes, but the codes by themselves are not powerful enough in managing ethics at work. Many scholars assert it is the developing dialogue around the values of codes that is tremendously noteworthy. Uncommonly, staff reacts to codes with certain doubt. But, when managing a hard matter, particularly in the times of crisis, having any sort of code is vital. More significant, it is having developed a code.
Creating Codes of Ethics
If the company is large and has some large programs or departments, it is possible to create a total code of ethics and then a divided code to help each of the programs or departments. Codes must not be evolved out of any legal department. They are inadequate if intended only to guarantee that policies are lawful. All workers must see the moral program being applied by the executives and leaders. Codes of ethics and conduct may be the same in one firm, depending on the culture and work of the firm and on the final level of specificity in the code. These are the guidelines for evolving codes of ethics:
- Top managers review any ethic values required to stick to pertinent laws. This ensures that firm is not breaking any of them. A proved violation generates more forgiveness than outside discovery of an unreported violation. Managers put main concern on moral values that will assist the company in working to avoid breaking laws
- Managers have to review which ethic values produce the top 3 or 4 features of a very ethical in your area. They identify which moral values create behaviors that exhibit these 3 or 4 features.
- Ethic values required to address present issues in the company have to be recognized. The main people and interview with them with provide descriptions of key issues at work. Managers have to gather descriptions of behaviors that create these issues and think about which of issues is ethical in nature. It is important to identify the behaviors required to resolve matters.
- It is important to identify any values required, concentrated on results during strategic planning. The data from the analysis of the company’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats should be obtained and reviewed. What behaviors are required to evolve on strengths, reduce weaknesses, take advantage of chances and defend against threats?
- Top moral values that may be prized by stakeholders should be considered. Such as, expectations of staff, clients, suppliers, members of the community and so on.
- It is required to gather from the above steps, top moral values that are priorities in the company.
- Then code of ethics may be comprised. Critics of codes say that they seem blank as many simply list moral values and do not give details of moral values by associating cases of behaviors.
- Review from main workers of the company should be obtained. It should be obtained from as many workers as possible.
- The new code should be announced and distributed. Every employee should obtain a copy.
- At least once a year the code has to be updated. The central part of codes is creating them, not the code itself. Continued dialogue around ethical values evolves ethical consensus. So, at least once a year the code has to be updated.
Ethics Tools: The Codes of Conduct
These codes depict actions at work and codes of ethics are usual guides to decisions about these actions. The codes include examples of suitable behavior to be significant. An organization may be sued for violation of contract if its practices are not actually in accord with the policies. That is why legal departments need to analyze codes of conduct and ethics policies. Also, it is vital for companies to evaluate their policies at least once a year to secure that they are in accordance with laws.
Creating Code of Conduct
Managers should pay attention to the fact that if the company is large and involves some large programs or departments, it is possible to create total organization’s code, and then a code for every of your programs or departments. It is highly recommended for managers to consider these guidelines when creating codes of conduct:
- First of all, executives need to identify main behaviors required to stick on the moral values declared in the code of ethics, including values resulting from review of main laws, ethical behaviors required in the goods or service area, behaviors to address existing matters at work, and behaviors required to attain strategic aims.
- Executives need to include wording that indicates all workers are expected to assert to the behaviors declared in the code of conduct. Wording should indicate where staff can go if they have certain questions.
- Managers have to attain a review from main members of the company.
- The new code of conduct should be declared and distributed. Every member of the staff should get a copy.
- Executives are not allowed to include favored behaviors for each ethical dilemma that may arise.
- Examples of topics obviously addressed by codes comprise: avoiding illegal drugs, avoiding conflict of interest, style of clothing, following words of leaders, not accepting gifts from stakeholders, avoiding any sort of discrimination, complying with laws and so on.
Probably too often, management ethics is depicted as an issue of resolving conflicts in which one choice seems to be the obvious option. For instance, case studies are usually presented in which a worker is faced with whether or not to steal, lie, abuse another and break some regulations. Nevertheless, moral problems faced by leaders are usually more complex and hard with no apparent guidelines. As noted earlier, Doug Wallace asserts that human beings realize when they have a vital moral conflict when there is an occurrence of a) noteworthy value conflicts among contrary interests, b) actual options that are equality stakeholders in the situation. An ethical dilemma takes place reasonable, and c) noteworthy consequences on when a person is faced with having to make an option among several alternatives (Pekel, Wallace, 2006).
Trainings for Supervisors and Learners
- New workers should be oriented to the company’s ethics during new-workers orientation.
- The ethics management program needs to be reviewed in training experiences.
- Engaging personnel in review of codes is a part of the finest training.
- Involving members of the staff in review of ethics policies is the finest ethics training.
- One of the finest kinds of training is practice in resolving difficult moral problems. Staff has to learn any of three problem resolution methods and utilize them concerning any of the actual ethical problems.
- Ethical performance should be included as a dimension in work evaluations.
- The ethics trainers declare that the best trainer is the behavior of the leaders.
Ethics and People Management
Every single day, staff and managers have to make choices and decisions that involve moral implications. Those choices impact the whole company, shareholders of the organization, and all the other stakeholders in interest. Working in an ethical way is incumbent upon everybody in a firm for legal and business reasons. And for a leader it’s vital to realize the ethical responsibilities so that he could meet the company’s expectations as well as model of suitable behavior for all other employees. Management ethics is a complex of standards for distinguishing right from wrong. As it is a fundamental level, it means acting practically and sincerely in individual and in group decision making. On a company level, it may refer, for instance, to open and sincere rivalry, acting without dishonesty or falsification, and working within the boundaries of the regulations. In the beginning of corporate scandals over the past decades, the majority of companies have written or even updated their codes of conduct and ethics rules. The first thing a leader needs to do is to read and realize those papers. That means thorough reading of the actual words used in the papers along with the spirit and intention behind the actual words. The second thing to do is to be certain that the staff of the firm also reads and realizes the papers and may come to their leader with all possible questions. If all members of the company act consistently with codes of conduct and ethics rules, they provide a basis of trust in nice relationships with other people. Part of the main aim is to demonstrate other people what it means to take moral decisions. Another part of the aim is to encourage all personnel to come forward if they believe that someone is not working ethically. As a result, the firm will be in a position to see that behavior and stop it prior it is out of control or even crosses the line into illegal behavior.
Topic of ethics in a worldwide economy
Moral rules will not always reply the matters you confront. Sometimes, for instance, the line between moral and legal conduct may get blurred. What if a person noticed a paper on the street that had sensitive data about a competitor’s product? Would he use it? It would be illegal if to steal such a document from the organization’s premises, but if someone found it on the street. Is it ethical to utilize it even though someone must have missed it by accident? These are not simple questions but are significant to think about. As part of a firm’s effort to evolve moral work surroundings, it’s significant to suggest an effectual ethics training program. And the training has to comprise more than simply a review of the firm’s moral rules. The larger topic of ethics in a worldwide economy is extremely imperative in today’s world of intercontinental business. It may occur that some sorts of behavior that many people find acceptable in the USA are not appropriate in another country and culture. That does not mean that some behavior should be tolerated in one state and not another. Rather, the organization should have firm standards to which every employee may and should adhere. A leader in every company should behave even more appropriate and carefully than other employees. People judge leaders on the basis how they behave and communicate. If a leader acts ethically and requires the same behavior of other workers, he or she represents the firm well and positions himself as someone the staff may respect. There is no better manner to attract and preserve the finest employees than to have their respect.
1. Madsen, P., Ph. D., Shafritz, J. M., Ph. D. (Eds.). 1990. “Essentials of Business Ethics”. New York: Penguin Books.
2. Kirrane, D.E. 1990. “Managing Values: A Systematic Approach to Business Ethics.” Training and Development Journal.
3. Carter McNamara, MBA, PhD. “Managing Ethics in the Workplace: An Ethics Toolkit for Managers”.
Retrieved from: http://iew3.technion.ac.il/MBA/structure/files/misc/Managing_Ethics_in_the_Workplace.pdf
4. Jon Pekel. Doug Wallace. 2006. “The Ten Step Method of Decision Making”.