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Water Treatment in Sub-Saharan Africa

The supply of groundwater in Sub-Saharan Africa is extremely important for the local population because people suffer from the shortage of potable water. However, the supply of the potable water raises the problem of the effective water treatment technology that can be applied. In this regard, it is necessary to take into consideration not only technological advancements in the water treatment technology but also the socioeconomic environment because the population of Sub-Saharan Africa cannot afford the implementation of high technologies. In this respect, it is possible to refer to the development of the effective water treatment technology of the groundwater in the main Fe, the region, where the risk of the emergence of contagious diseases, such as cholera, as high. Therefore, the water treatment technology should focus on the effective filtration and disinfection of the potable water taken from groundwater of the main Fe.

The treatment of the portable water in Sub-Saharan Africa should include several stages. First, pumping of the water from the ground will provide the supply of the groundwater to the surface, where the water can be treated further. Second, using screen filter to separate large debris from water. At this stage, the screen filter will help to stop debris that the groundwater contains and clean the water from large debris. Third, sedimentation includes the clarification of the water. This stage is essential to eliminate elements, which may be potentially dangerous for human health and which are unseen to the eye and cannot be stopped by the screen filter because these elements are too small. In such a way, the sedimentation can help to minimize the amount of debris in the water and other elements to make the water clear and suitable for drinking.

Fourth, filtration should start with the use of sand filter. The use of sand filter is effective because this is the effective way of filtration. At the same time, sand filters can be easily constructed and used in the region and this will decrease costs of filtration, while the quality of filtration will be high.

Fifth, the use of membrane filter would eliminate small particles from the water. Therefore, elements that passed through the sand filter will be stopped by the membrane filter. Sixth, slow sand filters can be use for Sub-Saharan region has plenty of land and space to use slow sand filters. Slow sand filters will complete the filtration of the potable water and after this stage the water can be disinfected.

Seventh, disinfection should involve chlorine disinfection. This is an efficient and relatively cheap disinfection that can prevent the contamination of the potable water and prevent the spread of such diseases as cholera, for instance. The chlorine disinfection decreases the risk of the water contamination with dangerous bacteria for chlorine kills them. Eighth, ultraviolet disinfection should complete the treatment of the potable water. In fact, ultraviolet disinfection enhances the positive effect of the chlorine disinfection and secures the potable water from contamination by bacteria and microbes.

Works Cited:
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Bartram, J, Lewis, K, Lentron R. et al. (2005, Feb.-Mar.). Focusing on improved water and sanitation for health. The Lancet. 365(9461), 810-812.
Hobbins M. (2003). The SODIS Health Impact Study, Ph.D. Thesis, Swiss Tropical Institute Basel
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