The objective of this paper is to discuss the life of offenders after the release from correctional oversight. As a rule, after the release offender can face to some standard problems. For example, offender can face some hardships trying to get job. It is also hard to avoid labeling after conviction. At last, it is necessary to prevent recidivism among offenders after release.
The effect of a felony conviction on employment
Ex-offenders face not only worse attitude but also some laws restricting their employment after the release. Thus, specialists in many spheres, for example, jurisdiction, can loose license or permission to work on their profession. However, the discrimination of ex-offenders is forbidden in many countries. The licenses and permissions can be renewed. Besides, in many states local laws encourage hiring ex-offenders. Thus, Connecticut law declares a public policy of encouraging employers to hire qualified ex-offenders (CGS § 46a-79).
However, the most tolerant laws related to the employment of ex-offenders have some reasonable limitations. These limitations are mostly related to the profession, fraud and extortion, as well as lack of good moral character. For example, if the ex-offender was involved in any felony in which the victim is under age 18, he or she will be forbidden to work with children in most of the states. Sexual offenders also have serious problems with employment: laws in many states allow employers to refuse any person registered as sexual offender in hiring for a job.
The strategies to decrease labeling of offenders after conviction
Unfortunately, the labeling of offenders after conviction depends mostly on their own. People don’t like former offenders because they always have in mind the possibility of recidivism. Despite reductionist strategies, it is very hard to avoid «stigma» of criminal after the release. It is almost impossible to do this in the case of sexual offence or\and crime against children. However, some recommendations can help to decrease labeling. First, it is not recommended to lie about the past. Checking of criminal history can be rejected in some states; however, if the check proves the felony, the reputation of ex-offender would be worsened because of lie. Besides, it would be useful to explain the felony. For example, marijuana possession cannot be compared with child abuse. At last, it is strongly recommended to pay all fines and to perform the necessary job. Ex-offender can decrease labeling if he or she gets the job. So, the renewing of licenses and permissions, as well as getting new job can decrease labeling. Reductionist strategies also involve the work ith surrounding people; however, it is insufficiently effective.
The strategies to decrease recidivism among offenders
Recidivism is the renewal of criminal activity and the return of ex-offender to prison. The rate of recidivism in the USA is estimated as two-third. It means that two of three ex-offenders return to prison within three years after the release.
Specialists in recidivism prevention usually consider three main elements or programs in prison and aftercare programs. The most frequently cited strategies are substance abuse treatment, education, and employment service. Substance abuse treatment helps to avoid re-addiction after release. Re-addiction usually prevents successful employment and rehabilitation. Educational programs allow prisoners and ex-offenders to obtain the useful skills and secondary education to find and retain employment. At last, employment service involves multiple components and helps ex-offenders to take part in different anti-recidivism programs, for example, faith programs.
Successful rehabilitation and employment of ex-offender is the task for ex-offender. However, the task of social service is to help ex-offender to get job and to avoid labeling and recidivism.
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