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Research Proposal: HRM in Small Organizations

The study of human resource management (HRM) is extremely important in the contemporary business environment but the study of HRM-related issues needs the detailed analysis and research. At the same time, conducting the study needs the detailed analysis of the subject of the study and involve major issues related to the problem of the study. In this regard, the research should dwell upon the background information of the study. In this respect, it is possible to focus on the HRM in small organizations because, today, many small organizations develop their business but they face problems caused by poor HRM. In such a situation, the study of HRM in small organizations can reveal differences existing between HRM in small and large organizations. In such a context, the background of HRM in small organizations should be defined clearly because the background gives insight toward understanding of the essence of the problem. In this regard, small organizations keep progressing but they apparently need to develop different HRM because they have different organizational structure and background.

The next step in conducting the study is the definition of the problem statement. The problem statement concerning HRM in small organizations should focus on the essence of HRM in small organizations. To put it more precisely, the problem may be the difference of HRM in small organisations from HRM in large organisations or small organisations may suffer from poor HRM and the research should reveal causes and find out possible solutions to improve HRM in small organisations. The problem statement opens the way for the definition of the purpose of the study. The definition of the purpose of the study defines the framework of the entire study because the study should reach its purpose. In this regard, it is possible to suggest the development of the purpose of the study on the ground of the problem identified in the problem statement. In fact, the study can focus on the analysis of HRM in small organizations, identification of its problems, revelation of differences compared to large organizations, and development of recommendations to improve HRM in small organizations.

On defining the purpose of the study and analyzing the background of the study and problem identified, the researcher should develop a hypothesis or hypotheses. In this regard, it is possible to suggest a hypothesis: HRM in small organizations is different from HRM in large organizations and they have to develop family-like atmosphere to create healthy organizational culture and to maintain positive company-employee relationships. At the same time, the study may have several hypothesis, which though should be related to each other and do not contradict to each other. In such a way, the hypothesis or hypotheses of the study will be tested in the course of the study and they are supposed to be proved or denied in the course of the study. Findings of the study should either prove or deny one or several hypotheses suggested by the researcher in the beginning of the study.

Literature review
While conducting the study, it is important to discuss and analyze other studies conducted in the same field and related to the problem discussed in the current study. In this regard, it is possible to conduct the literature review focusing on works dedicated to the problem of human resource management in small organizations and its impact on organizational performance. In such a way, the study should involve the study of literature which reveals the essence of HRM in small organizations and problems related to HRM in small organizations.At this point, it is important to focus on the difference of HRM in large and small organizations. In fact, the study should reveal possible differences between small and large organizations and their HRM. Te literature review should focus the development of HRM in small organisation. They should help the researcher to find out specificities of HRM in small organisations compared to large organisations. Through understanding differences between HRM in small and large organisations, the researcher can define peculiarities of HRM in small organisations and define key issues related to HRM and problems associated with the development of HRM. In fact, the researcher should use the analysis of different resources to develop the major problems identified in other resources and critically evaluate them focusing on issues, needed for the study.

At this point, the researcher should pay a particular attention to the fact that large organisations have more complex structure compared to small organisations. Obviously, the difference in the organisational structure will affect HRM in small and large organisations. In this regard, the study can reveal specificities of the organisational structure of small organisations to correlate the impact of the organisational structure on HRM in small organisations. In such a way, the researcher will reveal the impact of the organisational structure on HRM in small organisations. At this point, it is worth mentioning the fact that small organisations have different organisational structure compared to large organisations. At the same time, organisational structure is very important for HRM and the analysis of different resources can help to understand better needs of small organisations in the development of their HRM.

Furthermore, many researchers (Clarke, 16) point out that small organizations have a few employees and need to develop different HRM compared to large organizations. Obviously, the study of different resources can help to reveal problems associated with the organisational structure of small organisations and few employees they have. A few employees working in small organisations may have a considerable impact on the development of HRM in small organisations. Small organisations should be aware of the impact of the size of the personnel and number of employees on HRM. The researcher should analyze in details existing studies, which can help to reveal the correlation between the size of the organisation and the number of employees, on the one hand, and HRM of these organisations, on the other. Small organisations should have effective HRM and the analysis of the literature can help to reveal problems associated with managing a few employees. At this point, it is important to place emphasis on the fact that HRM of large organisations is well-researched. At any rate, there are numerous studies (Peters, 184) concerning HRM in large organisations, which provide detailed information on strategies and policies that may be applied to HRM in large organisations dealing with a large number of employees. At the same time, there are a few studies, which provide the detailed analysis of HRM in small organisations and suggest effective strategies and policies, which can improve consistently of HRM in small organisations. Therefore, the researcher should find existing studies and analyze existing literature dedicated to the problem of HRM in small organisations to reveal possible policies and strategies that can be effective in organisations employing a few employees.

At this point, the brief literature review reveals the fact that small organizations need to create family-like atmosphere. At any rate, some specialists (Kotter, 133) believe that this strategy may be effective in relation to HRM in small organisations. Therefore, the researcher should take this fact into account, while conducting the research. In fact, the findings of other professionals may be very helpful but the researcher should test the extent to which the family-like atmosphere can be effective for HRM in small organisations. The researcher can use this implication to conduct the study and to elaborate possible recommendations to small organisations to conduct their HRM effectively. In this regard, small organisations should be aware of the importance of the elaboration of effective strategies and policies to enhance its HRM. In such a way, the literature review can give certain insights for the further study of HRM in small organisations. To put it more precisely, the researcher can identify the difference between large and small organisations, reveal the difference in their organisational structure, specificities of their organisational culture and other issues, which may give insights for the further research. In this regard, the study of policies and strategies can maximize the effectiveness of HRM in small organisations. Therefore, the researcher can use information found in the course of the analysis of the literature can use it for the further study. In this respect, the idea of the creation of the family-like atmosphere in HRM of small organisations may be very helpful for the further study because the small size and a few employees working in small organisations may be beneficial for the creation of effective HRM on the ground of the family-like atmosphere.

Methodology
The methodology of the study affects consistently its outcomes. In this regard, the researcher should define subjects and methods used in the course of the study. In terms of the current research proposal, it is possible to focus on the selection of subjects of the study. In fact, subjects of the study should help the researcher to test hypotheses, to identify possible problems in HRM of small organisations, and to elaborate effective policies and strategies to enhance and improve HRM in small organisations. In this regard, it is possible to recommend selecting subjects of the study, such as managers and experts working with human relations issues. The choice of professionals working in the field of HRM or studying HRM-related issues can help the researcher to look into the essence of HRM in small organisations and to obtain information from people, who deal with HRM, including HRM in small organisations, on the regular basis. In fact, it is possible to involve owners of small businesses too because they may have extensive experience of managing human resources in their small organisations and their experience may be helpful for the researcher in terms of the proposed study.

At the same time, subjects should provide the researcher with objective information and their responses should be as bias-free as possible. In this regard, it is possible to recommend involvement of subjects of different age, gender and ethnicity. They should work in different industries to provide the researcher with the wide scope and diverse view on the problems of HRM at large and problems of HRM in small organisations in particular. As for the methods used in the study, the researcher should use qualitative methods, because they can help to identify actual problems and obtained diverse opinions and views of subjects on the problem of the development of effective HRM in small organisations. In fact, among qualitative methods that can be used in the study of HRM in small organisations, it is possible to suggest using interviews, questionnaires, focus groups. Interviews and questionnaires can help to conduct the study and to obtain detailed information from subjects. In fact, interviews and questionnaires help to obtain personal opinion and learn personal experience of subjects. Taking into consideration the professional background of the subjects and their close relation to HRM, the researcher can collect the data from the subjects and conduct the detailed analysis to summarise their opinions and to reveal common trends in HRM of small organisations. Focus groups can help to discuss specific issues and elaborate possible solutions. For instance, it is possible to discuss in focus groups ways of the improvement of HRM in small organisations. In terms of the work of focus groups it is possible to suggest discussing the creation of family-like atmosphere in small organisation to maximize the effectiveness of HRM.

Findings
On conducting interviews, questionnaires and managing the work of focus groups, the researcher should focus on findings of the study. For this purpose, the information has to be collected from interviews, questionnaires and the result of the work of focus groups. At this point, it is possible to recommend collecting all the information on the PC of the researcher. In such a way, it will be easier to process and systematize the information collected in the course of the study. On collecting all the data on one PC, the researcher can identify similar responses and define trends, which are common for the majority of subjects of the study. In such a way, the main trends have to be identified. At this point, the researcher should evaluate critically responses of subjects because the responses may be too subjective and the researcher should distinguish objective information from subjective one. Critical evaluation will help to identify actual trends in HRM of small organisations. The findings of the study should reveal the fact that the hypothesis is likely to be proved. In other words, the hypothesis of the study is right. In this regard, the researcher should draw specific facts that prove the righteousness of the hypothesis. These facts may be drawn from responses of the subjects in the course of interviews and questionnaires. In addition, focus groups can help the researcher to reveal whether the hypotheses were right. For instance, the work of the focus group can prove that the hypothesis discussed in the focus group was right. Alternatively, the hypothesis may be wrong. In such a situation, the hypothesis suggested in the beginning of the research may be incorrect. For instance, HRM in small organisations may be similar to that of large organisations. In this regard, the study is still useful because it reveals important facts about HRM in small organisations.

Discussion
The discussion chapter is based on the finding is of the study. The discussion of the results of the study should include the critical evaluation of the study and responses of the subjects. In such a way, the researcher should provide the coherent analysis of the findings of the study on the ground of which the researcher will be able to make adequate and objective conclusions. At the same time, the analysis of possible limitations of the study is also extremely important because each study may have certain limitations and weaknesses. Understanding of these limitations and weaknesses can help to assess the validity and reliability of the research. Moreover, limitations may give insights for further studies, which can carry on the proposed study.

Conclusion and recommendations
The final chapter of the research should include the summary of the findings of the study based on their critical evaluation in the discussion part. In addition, the researcher should provide recommendations to small organizations in regard to the development of their HRM. Also the researcher can define possible implications for further studies.

Works Cited:
Bovee, C.L. and Thill, J.V. Excellence in Business Communication. Prentice Hall, 2005.
Clarke, R. L. “Investing in the human resource.” Healthcare Financial Management, 2000, 54 (2); 16.
Hart, J.L. “Organizational Communication in an Age of Globalization: Issues, Reflections. Practices”. Business Communication Quarterly, 2004, Vol. 67.
Kotter, J. “What Leaders Really Do!” Harvard Business Review, 2001, Vol. 79.
“Leadership and Management Skills” Black Enterprise, 2001, Vol. 31.
Mount Carmel Minehan, M. “Technology’s increasing impact on the workplace.” HR Magazine, December 1997, 42 (12), 168.
Peters, T. J. (2007). In search of excellence: Lessons from America’s best-run companies. New York: Harper & Row.
Schein, E. H. (1999). Organizational culture and leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.