Today, the development of new technologies affects consistently the process of communication. In this regard, the criminal justice system is vulnerable to a considerable impact of the new information technologies and telecommunication systems, which enhance the security of databases of criminal justice systems. In this regard, the introduction of the iris recognition technologies aims at the improvement of the security of databases of criminal justice system. However, new technologies, being introduced in the criminal justice system has a number of problems and drawbacks but technologies have to keep progressing to improve the reliability and security of databases is essential.
First of all, it is worth mentioning the fact that the iris recognition technology was introduced to improve the quality of security level of protection of criminal justice’s databases. At this point, it is worth mentioning the fact that the iris recognition technology has been introduced relatively recently. This technology changed consistently the communication within the criminal justice system because it facilitated the process of the authentication and, at the same time, increased the level of security of databases.
At this point, it is worth mentioning the fact that the iris recognition technology aims at the improvement of the security of databases of the criminal justice system. This is a method of the biometric recognition similar to face recognition but involving iris as the subject to measurement and identification. Iris of individuals is unique and cannot be doubled. As a result, the iris recognition is an effective technology that increases the level of security of databases of the criminal justice system. At this point, it is worth mentioning the fact that the iris recognition technology is considered to be reliable but it is necessary to introduce this technology to enhance the security of databases of the criminal justice system.
In actuality, specialists (Lucas and Baroudi, 2002) distinguish a number of advantages, which contribute to the introduction of the face recognition and the iris recognition in the criminal justice system. First of all, both the face recognition and the iris recognition increase the level of security of databases in the criminal justice system. At this point, it is worth mentioning the fact that specialists argue that the face recognition and the iris recognition are considered to be the effective recognition systems (King, 1999).
Furthermore, the iris recognition limits access to restricted areas. In such a way, the face recognition and the iris recognition can become and are effective technologies, which allow the criminal justice system to limit the access to its databases. In fact, the limitation of access is crucial for the protection of databases in the criminal justice system.
Another advantage of the iris recognition is the protection of information from unauthorized access. What is meant here is the fact that the information stored in the databases of the criminal justice system has to be protected and the iris recognition prevents the unauthorized access and, therefore, information breaches. As a result, the communication within the criminal justice system can be secured due to the wide introduction of the criminal justice system.
However, many specialists argue that the iris recognition technologies have a number of disadvantages. In this respect, it is worth mentioning the high costs of introduction of technologies. In actuality, in spite of the progress of technologies, the introduction of the face recognition and the iris recognition technologies is still very expensive and needs substantial financial resources. As a result, the criminal justice system cannot afford the introduction of the face recognition and the iris recognition technologies.
Furthermore, such technologies as the face recognition are considered to be less reliable than the iris recognition. The problem is that the face recognition can fail that naturally raises the problem of the reliability of this technology and increases the risk of the unauthorized access to databases of the criminal justice system.
In addition, specialists (Mica, 1999) argue that the iris recognition raises privacy issues. To put it more precisely, the iris of individuals are unique but their scanning and use for recognition imply the creation of the database, where biometric data, i.e. iris, are stored. The loss of this private information may be harmful for individuals.
Nevertheless, new technologies have to be introduced to enhance the security of databases and information stored within the criminal justice system. The improvement of security technologies is essential and they need to enhance the security and protect privacy rights of individuals. In such a way, the introduction of new recognition technologies can contribute to the consistent improvement of the security of the criminal justice system and its databases.
Thus, it is obvious that new technologies can enhance the security of databases in the criminal justice system. In this regard, the iris recognition are prospective but need consistent improvements.
In addition, the iris recognition technology enhances the physical security of areas with restricted access. On analyzing basic principles of physical security, it is important to lay emphasis on the fact that the first layer of physical security should start with the perimeter security. In actuality, this means that the physical security system should start with fencing of the territory which is supposed to be protected by the physical security system. In actuality, modern physical security may include different forms of perimeter security. Fencing is not the only form that can be used in the modern physical security system but it is probably the simplest mechanism of the protection of the perimeter of the territory which is to be protected. Today, more effective security mechanisms can be used, including barbed wire, warning signs, metal barriers vehicle height restrictors, site lighting and trenches. In this respect, it is possible to distinguish security elements which serve to warn about the protection of the territory or building and elements which raise physical obstacles to an unauthorized intrusion. For instance, warning signs warn potential intruders that the territory is secured and protected. At the same time, barbed wire, metal barriers, vehicle height restrictors and other elements create the physical protection of the perimeter and the building. In such a way, the perimeter security has two purposes: physical protection of the perimeter and warning of potential intruders that the territory is protected. At the same time, the perimeter should be under the control of the security service, which should have a possibility to survey the perimeter permanently.
The second layer of physical security is mechanical protection of the building, which includes doors, locks, gates and other mechanical elements of physical protection (Anderson, 2004). However, today, the use of conventional mechanical elements of physical security such as locks is inconvenient, especially in areas and buildings where a large number of people need to have access to the secured territory or building. In order to maintain the high level of security and protect the protected area or building from an unauthorized intrusion, new, electronic access control elements are used. In fact, electronic access control is based on the use of electronic systems of recognition of individuals that can be admitted to the restricted area or building. Today, various elements of electronic access control are introduced. For instance, fingerprint security systems are widely used. In these systems fingerprints are used for the identity authentication.
Furthermore, the building security and grounds security should be protected with the third layer of the physical security system. As a rule, intrusion detection systems or alarms are used at the third layer of the physical security system. In actuality, intrusion detection systems and alarms are used to identify the unauthorized intrusion, when an intruder has already entered the building or restricted area (Hayward, 2004). Today, modern technologies allow fast identification of an intruder because modern technologies allow using sensors that react on movements, sounds, breaking windows, doors, and so on. In such a way, when the unauthorized intrusion is identified by an intrusion detection systems or alarms, the security service gets the information about the intrusion and responds immediately.
However, intrusion detection systems and alarms are not always effective and there is a risk that intruders can overcome these security systems. This is why, today, video monitoring is widely used. At this point, it is worth mentioning the fact that video monitoring should be used at all layers of the physical security system. In actuality, this means that the perimeter should be surveyed by the security service via video monitoring. At the next layer of the physical security, the video monitoring should show the security service the surrounding of the building, doors, windows, corridors, grounds and all the areas where intrusion can be detected.
In such a way, the multiple layer physical security system is reliable and highly effective. At the same time, such physical security provides ample opportunities for the full protection of the restricted area or building and such system meets basic principles of the physical security for intrusion can be detected at any layer of the physical security system, which is under the permanent control of the security service.
While developing the security system, it is necessary to take into consideration that its security officers can be granted with the police power, such as special or commissioned officers, or, alternatively security officers can be not granted with police and arrest powers. In such a situation, depending on the power granted to security officers they actions may differ consistently. In actuality, security officers who are not granted with the police and arrest powers naturally cannot arrest people or, to put it more precisely, to take them into custody. Instead, they can limit the actions of individuals who offense patients or health care professionals or whose actions threaten to life, health and property of people and public safety. However, these security officers cannot arrest offenders, but they can locate them and call the police which should conduct the arrest procedure, if necessary. It is important to lay emphasis on the fact that security officers, who are not granted with the police and arrest powers, should respect rights and liberties of offenders. Moreover, they should ensure that offenders, if they are located, should be safely conveyed to the police.
As for security officers, who are granted with the police and arrest powers, their actions should basically meet the arrest procedure and powers granted to police officers. In this respect, the arrest procedure start with the arrest of a person and the accused person is taken into custody. When the person is taken into custody, he or she should be informed about his or her rights. This right is known as the Miranda right. In fact, the case of Ernesto Miranda produced a significant impact on the development of the American justice system and procedure of the detainment or arrest. In this respect, Ernesto Miranda maybe viewed as the victim of the violation of his rights, which are now considered to be commonly accepted and absolutely normal, while in the past suspects could be interrogated even without being informed about their rights. In such a context, Ernesto Miranda was the first person who made the US justice system and law enforcement agencies to change the attitude to suspects, because he was a victim of the ignorance of his rights. To put it more precisely, on analyzing the Miranda’s case, it should be said that he was arrested as a suspect because police believed that he was the offender who raped a girl.
However, the police had no evidence but the description of the vehicle of the offender and a part of its license plate number, which met the vehicle and plate number of Miranda. In the result of a two-hour interrogation the police got the confession of Miranda on the basis of which he had undergone the trial and was sentence to a long term, twenty to thirty years, in prison. It is important to underline that his attorney was not present during the interrogation and Miranda was not aware of his rights. The following Miranda vs. Arizona case was an attempt to reconsider the Miranda’s case and release him since his attorneys, Flynn and Frank, who were reputable criminal defense attorneys, argued that Miranda’s rights defined in the 5th Amendment were violated. The court’s decision was positive and ruled that suspects should be informed about their rights before they are interrogated. However, Miranda was not released from the prison because the ruling of the court was not valid at the moment of his arrest and all the procedures met the current norms. In such a way, security officers should observe the Miranda rights of offenders.
At the same time, security officers, whether they are granted with the police and arrest powers or not, need the permanent training to get all the information about changes in legislation and legal procedures in order to observe rights and liberties of offenders and conduct detention of offenders in accordance to existing legal norms. At this point, the proper organization of training is very important. Basically, the security system should involve specialists who are able to train the personnel, namely security officers. Among these specialists, it is possible to single out a person who is acquainted with legal arrest procedures and police powers. This may be a former police officer or a person with juridical education and experience of work in the justice system or police. In addition, it is important to employ a psychologist since security officers should not only be able to stop offensive actions, but they should be also able to prevent offensive actions. In this regard, the knowledge of legal procedures is not enough, instead, security officers should human psychology and conflict management in order to be able to cope with offenders or prevent their offensive actions. Security officers should be aware of their responsibility and liability in case of the misuse of power or improper actions.
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Hayward, K. J. (2004). City Limits: Crime, Consumerism and the Urban Experience. New York: Random House.
Lucas, H., and Baroudi, J. (2002). “The role of Information Technology in Organization Design.” Journal of Management Information Systems, vol. 10(4).
Mica, D. (1999) “Why E-Commerce? Credit Union Magazine, vol. 65(11).
Williams, G. (2010). Modern Security Systems. New York: Random House.