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Globalization | International Drug Trafficking

Nowadays, the consequences of globalization have lead to significant problems and challenges in different areas of people’s lives. For example, the illegal drug trade. Governments should not allow free trade in illicit drugs.

The international market in illicit drugs has become one of the largest in the world, comparable in its scope, for example, the global oil business. Experts estimate that drug trafficking is no less than 8% of world trade. The main organizers of an international drug trafficking are transnational mafia organizations.

The modern drug industry – is the production and transportation of the three basic types of narcotics (heroin, cocaine, cannabis derivatives) for customers of two major regional markets (USA, Western Europe) by several competing and cooperating with other international crime “firms” (Sicilian and Corsican mafia “Cosa Nostra”, the Chinese triads, Colombian cartels of Medellin and Cali, etc.).

One of the first on the path of international drug trafficking came back in 1920 by American gangsters, who bought heroin in China and Western Europe for resale in the United States. During the Second World War and the postwar decades, the drug business stagnation and even decline, but it became a flourish at the turn of 1960-1970’s under the influence of a “youth revolution”. Nowadays, due to the illegal drug trade there is the foundation of the economy of organized crime, providing about half of its revenues from criminal trades, according to Illegal drugs (2010).

Mafia entrepreneurs organize buying the raw drug the peasants of the Third World, recycle it into hard drugs and then secretly transport in developed countries where the drugs in small batches differ among street drug dealers offering their wares to all comers. The entire “production cycle” of drug trafficking is strongly reminiscent of the activities of transnational corporations as to cash flow, and in methods of organization. Specificity of drug trafficking is a high risk of resistance to state law enforcement agencies, and there is a very high rate of return. While in transit from developing to developed countries, drug prices are growing by tens or hundreds of times: for example, in late 1990 Pakistan kilogram of heroin was worth about 1,5 thousand dollars, and in the UK its retail price has already reached to 120 thousand dollars, according to Anonymous (2009).

As a fact, globalization contributes to the distribution of drugs worldwide. It can be said that globalization – is the process of global economic, political and cultural integration and unification. The main consequence of this is the global division of labor migration (and, as a rule, the concentration) on a global scale of capital, human and industrial resources, the standardization of legislation, economic and technological processes, as well as convergence and fusion of cultures in different countries. It is an objective process that is systemic, that is, covers all aspects of society. As a result of globalization, the world becomes more connected and more responsive to all its stakeholders. As well, occurs as an increase in the number of common groups of problems as well as expanding the number and types of integrating subjects.

Globalization reflects the process of information technologies, products and systems worldwide, that carries with it economic and cultural integration. Supporters of this process see in it the possibility of further process on the development of global information society. Opponents warn of the dangers of globalization on national cultural traditions and deepening of social inequality, according to Costa Storti, C. and P. De Grauwe (2007).

Negative effects. The acceleration of globalization has led to worldwide opposition to her political anti- globalism movement. Blaming anti-globalists globalization is that it has increased inequality and environmental degradation. The dissatisfaction of globalization is characterized by both developing countries and in countries with developed economies. Transfer of production from developed countries to countries with cheaper labor leads to the elimination of jobs and unemployment in the first world. For example, the Midwest has destroyed the competitiveness of the globalization of industry and agriculture, reducing the quality of life.

Some also see in it a growing problem in the impact of globalization on culture. Along with the economic globalization and trade, culture is imported and exported as well. The problem is that stronger, larger countries like the U.S. can dominate culture of the smaller countries, resulting in the fact that their traditions and values disappear. This process is also sometimes referred to Americanization, according to Cardoso, F., C. Gaviria and E. Zedillo (2009).

Positive effects. Globalization has centripetal tendencies of the world integration process that would consolidate the planetary community on the basis of a single global economic space. Exponentially comprehensive economic integration at this time creates a unified system of transnational management – global economic monolith. The process of internationalization of production so pulling peoples, countries, regions in the only world mega socium, it goes without, hopefully, diminishing in the future and outlines the essence of national-state formations. State structures over time begin to dissolve their military and political potency. The total economic integration, eliminating ethnic barriers, destroying interstate borders dissolving themselves own national state formation, is designed to objectively translate these movements into a unified, coherent, united inter-ethnic community – a global social monopoly – with a single supra-national center for coordination, management, control … Centripetal vector of integration processes clearly dictates the corresponding world order.

The prospect of complete, undivided world in the process of global economic integration – is the inevitable objective, due to the natural pace of social evolution. So – it is justified. First of all, because socio-economic dimension in the global monolith disappears in grounds for inter-ethnic rivalry, hatred, and conflict. A holistic, indivisible world on the basis of a single economic space is so fine that it would eliminate the possibility of human life as a clash of devastating wars. Hence centripetal trend of globalization processes is designed to ensure objective of human civilization and its progress.

The international drug trafficking, on high scale, began to develop from the mid-1970s, having its apex in the 1980s. This development is closely linked to the global economic crisis. The drug trade provides the economies of the coca growers, whose main exports have suffered successive drops in their prices (although most of the profits do not stay in those countries) and at the same time, mainly favors the global financial system. The money from the drug corresponds to the logic of the financial system, which is highly speculative. This need, increasingly, is capital “free” to rotate, and drug trafficking promotes the “magical appearance” of capital that it accumulates very fast and moves fast. The drug is produced on a global scale, from growing up in developing countries consumption, especially in Western countries, where the final product reaches a high value on the black market, according to Illegal drugs (2010).

Drug use has serious social consequences: crime, violence, corruption, marginalization, among others. So most countries in the world prohibit the production, distribution, and sale of these substances. Consequently, it graduated from a black market in narcotics and psychotropic substances, and drug trafficking today took care of many young people in clubs and at parties. Even the high social class provides users, although some people still have the prejudice that only the poor, such as slum dwellers, are users.

In many countries, including Brazil, there are social movements, pro-legalization of cannabis sativa, a substance declared illegal by the laws of the country. The Marijuana March is an example of this, people from around the country take to the streets shouting, hooting, show posters and teaching on marijuana, showing the other side of the fight against drug trafficking, sometimes the amount invested by the government in combating trafficking is less than the profit that dealers have with the traffic.

Production. Most drugs are produced in countries of South America, Southeast Asia and the Middle East, entering the consuming countries through smuggling. Traditionally, the United States, Mexico, the European Union, Japan and Singapore in particular (where the traffic and consumption of drugs are punished with death) have imposed a zero tolerance policy for producer countries. However, in many countries, the cultivation of coca and marijuana is an important source of livelihood to which they are not willing to abdicate. Moreover, psychotropic substances such as LSD, amphetamines and other synthetic substances such as ecstasy are produced in developed countries.

Origins. In places where legislation restricts or prohibits the sale of certain popular drugs, it is vile development of a black market. Most countries consider drug trafficking a serious problem. In 1989, the U.S. intervened in Panama with the purpose of ending the drug trade. The government of India conducted operations in the Middle East and the Indian peninsula itself to follow the trail of several drug traffickers. Some estimates put the global trade of illegal drugs worth about $ 400 billion in 2000, which added while the value of global trade in legal drugs (such as tobacco and alcohol), corresponds to an excess the money spent for food at the same time period. In 2005, the World Drug Report of the United Nations reported that the value of the illicit drug market was estimated at 13 billion dollars a production level of 94 billion at market price and over a trillion based on crop prices taking into account also the losses. Although in consumption in the world’s largest consumer market is the United States is followed by Europe. The world’s top producers are Afghanistan (opium), Peru and Colombia (cocaine), according to Drugs (2011).

Profitability. Study conducted by the Department of Finance of the State of Rio de Janeiro, conducted in December 2008, estimated that drug trafficking in Rio de Janeiro (marijuana, cocaine and crack) making between 316 and 633 million dollars per year, profits but something around 130 million, less profitable than it seems. Among the high costs incurred by the traffickers, there are the logistics of supply and self-protection and losses arising from police data. Besides spending on labor, the costs are between 121 and 218 million dollars per year with the replacement of weapons and purchase of products.

The drug (the root “narco-” comes from the Greek nark, “torpor”) is an illegal industry worldwide is growing, processing the distribution and sale of illegal drugs. While certain drugs are legal sale and possession (certain drugs that contain it, snuff, alcohol, etc), in most jurisdictions the law prohibits the sale and even the offer or sale of some types of drugs. The drug trade operates similarly to other underground markets. Various drug cartels specialize in separate processes along the supply chain, often targeted to maximize efficiency. Depending on the profitability of each part of the process, the cartels vary in size, consistency and organization. The chain ranges from low-level street dealers, who sometimes are drug users themselves, the drugs are trafficked by brokers who may be treated as contractors, multinational empires that rival in size with national governments.

The drug is produced globally. The drug has important social consequences: crime, violence, corruption, marginalization. Therefore, most countries in the world prohibit the production, distribution and sale of such substances. As a result, there has formed an illegal market for narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances, which produces tremendous economic benefits, according to Anonymous (2009).

Illegal trade of legal drugs. Legal drugs such as snuff and alcohol can become contraband and illegal trade if the price difference between the source and destination is high enough to make it profitable. With taxes on snuff (much higher in the United Kingdom than in the rest of Europe) this is a significant problem in the UK. It is also usually illegal to sell or provide alcohol to minors or snuff, which is considered contraband in most countries.

Drugs prescribed. Some drugs that can be purchased legally by prescription are also available through illegal means, eliminating the need to produce, process and deliver drugs directly. For example: prescription of opioids are sometimes much stronger than heroin found on the street, for example the group of analogs of fentanyl. Prescriptions are stolen or broken, or occasionally sold on the Internet. However, it is much easier to control traffic in prescription drugs than illegal drugs because the manufacturer usually is a legal original and so the problem can often be found quickly and neutralized. There might also be a reduced risk of product contamination or poor compared to cases of clandestine laboratories manufacturing, according to Costa Storti, C. and P. De Grauwe (2007).

Internet and controlled substances. There are websites offering to sell controlled substances without a valid prescription. These sites were first recognized by the U.S. Department of Justice in 1999, indicating that such sites had been operating at least through the last years of the decade of 1990. These allow distributors and users to complete transactions without direct contact. While many accept credit cards, others only accept cash to reduce the evidence of the existence of the operation. Many of these sites are organized in countries where specific categories of controlled substances are locally legal (for example, prescription of opioids in Mexico), but given the global nature of the internet, they can negotiate (mostly illegally) with customers around the world. In addition to the rule of opioids, stimulants, and sedatives, there are often widely distributed steroids. To date, there were not found any sites that sell illegal drugs like heroin or illegal derivative of amphetamine. Police have discovered several cases of distribution channels that use personal ads to solicit drug business using passwords or pre-formulated phrases.

U.S. government’s position. The federal government is a very strong opponent of the drug industry, and it is governed according to international standards regarding the legality and illegality of drugs. One of the most controversial is the Plan Colombia.

The particular laws of the states vary widely, and in some cases contradict federal law. Despite the U.S. government’s official position against the drug trade, U.S. government officials and their various resources have been involved in the drug trade.

Oliver North and Barry Seal were caught and investigated during the Iran-Contra scandal, implicated in the use of the drug trade as a source of U.S. illegal to benefit the Contras. Page 41 of the report of Kerry U.S. Senate in December 1988 states that “in fact the biggest American policy makers were no strangers to the idea that drug money was a perfect solution to the financial problems of the Contras.”

Contrary to its official goals, we know that the United States government has tried to stop scientific research on the consequences of substance abuse. For example, in 1995 the World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (United Nations Interregional Research on Crime and Justice) (UNICRI) announced in a press conference, the publication of the results of the largest global study on the consumption of addictive substances. However, a decision by the World Health Assembly banned the publication of the study. At the sixth meeting of Committee B, the U.S. representative threatened that “If WHO activities relating to drugs failed to strengthen drug control methods tested, must be removed funding for relevant programs.” This led to the decision to cease publication. So far it has managed to recover only part of the study. There are available consumption profiles of cocaine in 20 countries, according to Cardoso, F., C. Gaviria and E. Zedillo (2009).

Position of intellectuals. Many writers, scholars and artists have spoken out against measures taken worldwide against drug trafficking. In Colombia Antonio Caballero has complained for many years the presence of drug trafficking in the social, military, political, artistic and religious identity of colombianos. In his speech always comes up as inefficient in the fight against drugs, double moral of the consumer countries from the producers, the appropriateness of the first to maintain a war against drug traffickers and the ruling class of producer countries to hide behind this conflict to maintain inequality. The authors Doug Stokes and Francisco Ramirez Cuellar have shown some of the most fundamental weaknesses of the Plan Colombia, especially as an excuse to exterminate the guerrillas still serving in the country.

Position of some politicians. Colombian Senator Piraquive Alexandra Moreno is in favor of legalizing the crop regulated, 15 processing, marketing and consumption of psychotropic drugs (with limitations such Anti-Tobacco Act) as a fundamental solution to the high and unsuccessful human, social, environmental and financial involved in the fight against drugs. Legalization would end the black market and the resulting black money generated by drug trafficking in Colombia has taken the brunt as are the numerous deaths, social and political corruption and the damage ambiental.

The Committee is one of the specialized agencies within the UN. Despite the extensive counter-measures taken by the international community, a network of interconnected criminal organizations, drug sales, has more financial resources and weapons, began to act more actively. There has never been greater danger that could be undermined by political institutions and economic systems of some countries. There has never been greater threat to the lives of political leaders, lawyers, journalists and ordinary citizens. Declared war against drug traffickers in one country threatens the security and integrity of all States, it is a war against the entire world community.

Therefore, the response to curb drug trafficking should be more coordinated, integrated and operational in nature, be more energetic and effective, taken on a global scale. Countries in which there is a long-entrenched illicit cultivation of narcotic plants, you must provide access to modern intelligence technology, which allows to detect and destroy such crops. There is the need to combine measures against illicit drug production and proliferation of efforts to create a more equitable international economic order, assisting States to “third world” in the booming national economy, the development of traditional export industries and agriculture, in the preparation of specialized personnel. Great concern to the Committee is that in addition to the growth of illicit drug production, it expands and “geography” of cultivation of narcotic crops. So planting opium poppies serving raw material for heroin, has been found in Guatemala and Colombia, and coca, the leaves are produced by cocaine, began to grow even in Africa, according to Sniffle and boom (2011).

The rapid growth of drug addiction threatened today all segments of society and inflicts great damage, manifested in the loss of human life, health expenditure, increase in crime reduction in productivity. An additional threat is poly (the use of more than one type of drug) and often in combination with alcohol. Such dangerous forms of drug use complication of the process of detoxification and treatment. In this regard, the Committee stresses the importance of making progress in reducing drug demand, that is the key to improving the overall situation of human trafficking. Without reducing their demand for the fight against illegal production may bring only temporary success, since the elimination of one provision will lead to another.

The fight against drugs and drug addiction is widespread, although the approaches to this issue are different. Recently, this fight has pretty interesting way. Governments create special structures that are almost starting to deal with drug sales, rather than struggling against this evil.

I would like to know if the fight against narcotics will be held in this vein, if we can win all this evil. The first step in this struggle is that it may be possible to remove all markets. But by removing the vendors, the problem itself can not be solved. And if this fight will happen, so that each government should take responsibility for follow-up.

The fight against drug abuse should be conducted in such a way as to completely destroy all the prerequisites to the right actions and intelligence, from childhood. The fight against drugs must be double-sided – one side stringent laws, but on the other work on drug prevention. Only then can there be any hope of success.

Currently, the fight against drugs is vital, because the distribution of drugs is already happening, and it is not only illegal, but also through existing drugs, which is especially dangerous for society, leads to death. Fighting drug addiction is becoming a problem not only in an individual state or country, and becomes a real struggle for survival. In the first fight against drug addiction – there is defending the human right to life. Today, it is necessary to conduct a reasonable dialogue not only with consumers but with the sellers of death. After all, if the battle against drugs is lost, then life on earth will become unbearable. Governments have to act together in cooperation considering the current situation.

To date, some societies believe that some drugs should be legalized. And if you support such policies, it may come a time when the struggle against drugs will be useless. One gets the impression that in these countries is likely not a struggle with drug addiction and struggle with normal people. Very acute today is the issue of distributing drugs. There are constant inventiona of new and new synthetic drugs, and drugs which are presented as new “drugs.” To get ahead of manufacturing and distribution of drugs necessary to combat this scourge to exert maximum effort. Currently, the existing health centers for the treatment of drug addiction are making maximum efforts to prevent the manufacture and distribution of drugs throughout the world. Everywhere and always they are engaged in rehabilitation of drug addicts is constantly conducting lectures on the dangers of drugs in all cities of the world. Constantly there are struggles with the beginnings of drug abuse, as well as with their consequences.

Statistics show that if the constant lectures about the dangers of drugs, the rate of drug decreased from 30 to 60%. It’s safe to say that drug treatment centers do their primary task. Therefore, in any case, the society should not give up the fight against drug addiction. If the society is able to win the war against drugs, the future of this society will be wonderful.

The fight against drug abuse should be a priority of any government, it should include all possible leverage to wage a successful fight against this social evil. After all, a healthy society – is a society free from drugs.
Currently, the fight against drugs is most relevant in the global arena. Over the past ten years has increased the number of reported crime and convictions for crimes related to drug abuse. Drug addiction is a global problem. Our country is bound by international obligations to fight drug addiction with other countries by virtue of ratification of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs. Seriousness of the threat prompted the UN General Assembly to convene an international conference to work out action programs to eradicate drug abuse. According to World Health Organization estimates the total number of drug addicts in the world now reaches approximately 70 million people. Increased the number of addicts among minors and young people grow into drug smuggling and trafficking. This activity has become a global business. The annual income of corporations, organizing drug trafficking, is about $ 400 billion. Some idea of the illegal drug can be obtained on the basis of data produced by large-scale confiscations. All in all, governments have to take active actions and deal with the problem, there has to be tight cooperation and proper measures taken in order to save the modern society and future generations. Consequently, governments should not allow free trade in illicit drugs in the modern world.

 

References

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