To begin with, it should be noted that brain – is part of the central nervous system of human. As a fact, brain consists of a large number of neurons interconnected by synaptic connections. Interacting through these connections, neurons form complex electrical impulses that control the activity of the whole organism. It should be mentioned that brain function involves the processing of sensory information from the senses, planning, decision making, coordination, motion control, positive and negative emotions, attention and memory, perception and generation of speech, according to Brain (2010).
Human brain can be divided into three main parts: the forebrain, brainstem and cerebellum. The front brain consists of cerebral hemispheres, thalamus, hypothalamus and pituitary gland. The cerebral hemispheres – is the largest part of the brain in adult component of approximately 70% of its weight. The hemispheres are symmetrical and connected by a massive bundle of axons, providing information exchange. Each hemisphere is divided into four parts: the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital. In the cortex of the frontal lobes contains centers that regulate motor activity, and the centers of planning and foresight. In the cortex, parietal lobes, located behind the frontal lobe, there are zones of bodily sensations, including touch, and joint and muscle sense. In turn, posterior parts of the brain is the occipital lobe, which is located above the cerebellum, its bark contains a zone of visual sensations, according to Helen Philips (2008).
The brain stem is located at the base of the skull. It connects the spinal cord with the forebrain and consists of the medulla oblongata, bridge, middle, and diencephalon. The cerebellum is located below the occipital lobes of the cerebral hemispheres. The cerebellum provides the regulation of thin automatic movement in coordinating the activity of different muscle groups in the performance of stereotyped behavioral acts; it also constantly monitors the position of the head, torso and extremities. Recent evidence suggests that the cerebellum plays an essential role in the formation of motor skills, helping to memorize the sequence of movements, according to Peter T. Fox, Jack L. Lancaster (2011).
As a fact, damage of at least one part of the brain can lead to very serious consequences, even death. Every main part of the brain is responsible for its function and its damage can cause disorders in the human organism. For example, the damage of cerebellum can lead to total or partial loss of motor coordination.
Brain (2010). Retrieved October 17, 2011 from http://science.nationalgeographic.com/science/health-and-human-body/human-body/brain-article/
Helen Philips (2008). Introduction: The Human Brain. Retrieved October 17, 2011 from http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn9969-instant-expert-the-human-brain.html
Peter T. Fox, Jack L. Lancaster (2011). Human Brain Mapping. Retrieved October 17, 2011 from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1097-0193;jsessionid=C79FFDF4123BD6BA42ADDBDAD0353EAF.d03t01