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Florence

Most completely, the features of the Renaissance culture were surely manifested in the art of Italy, primarily in the perspective trade industry and humanistic centre, in Florence. In the 15th century, Florentine school was the heart of innovation in all the forms of art (Turner, 1997). It was here that many of the works of the Early Renaissance architecture were created (Filippo Brunelleschi, Michelozzo di Bartolommeo, Leon Battista Alberti, Bernardo Rossellino, Giuliano da Maiano, Giuliano da Sangallo) (Turner, 1997). The ancient order system was creatively rethought by Italian architects and brought logical proportionality and harmonic clarity into the architecture of the Renaissance, enriching the tectonics of the buildings. Indeed, the Italian architectural monuments of the Early Renaissance are mainly located in Florence, among them are: an elegant, and yet simple in its technical solution, dome of Santa Maria del Fiore (1436) and Palazzo Pitti by Filippo Brunelleschi, who determined the vector of the development of Renaissance architecture; Palazzo Riccardi built by Michelozzo Michelozzi; Palazzo Strozzi by Benedetto da Maiano, Palazzo Gondi by Giuliano da Sangallo, etc. (Turner, 1997; Partridge, 2009).

Florentine artists of the Early Renaissance created a plastically self-consistent concept of the world which had its inner unity. Systematically studying the nature, they drew motifs from the everyday life and filled traditional religious scenes with earthly content. In sculpture (Ghiberti, Donatello, Jacopo della Quercia, della Robbia, Rossellini, Desiderio da Settignano, B. da Maiano, Verrocchio), freestanding statue, perspective picturesque landscape, realistic portrait bust, and equestrian monument were developed and gained popularity. The Italian art of the 15th century (Masaccio, Filippo Lippi, A. del Castagno, P. Uchchello, Fra Angelico, D. Ghirlandaio, A. Pollaiolo, and Verrocchio in Florence) is characterized by a sense of harmonic ordering of the world, the appeal to the ethical and civic ideals of humanism, joyous appreciation of beauty and diversity of the real world, love to storytelling and bold game of artistic fantasy (Turner, 1997; Partridge, 2009).

During the High Renaissance, the struggle for the ideals of the Renaissance gained its tense and heroic character, reflecting the dreams of liberation and unification of the country. The all-national rise was most clearly expressed in the architecture and art, marked with synthetic generalization of the reality and power of the heroic images full of mental and physical activity. Being established in Florence, the classic style of the High Renaissance found its highest expression in the works, created in Rome and later, in one of the leading centers of the Renaissance, in Venice.

References:
Partridge, L. W. (2009). Art of Renaissance Florence, 1400-1600. University of California Press.
Turner, A.R. (1997). Renaissance Florence: The Invention of a New Art. Prentice Hall.