Nowadays, there is a big problem in the area of the waster crisis. Many countries feel the lack of fresh water for their people and develop programs considering the issue. There are many reasons why our freshwater supply is shrinking. Among them are over population of the planet, pollution and contamination of our freshwater. Many countries set laws and regulations to protect their vast supply of freshwater, for example Canada.
A water crisis is the temporary interruption in the distribution of water in a given territory. The causes are varied: often drought or, in the underdeveloped areas, inadequate water supply that often, in these regions, also has losses in excess of 50% of the water entered the plant, according to A clean water crisis.
Water scarcity is an environmental problem whose impacts tend to be more serious if the management of water resources will not be reviewed by the countries. Currently, more than a billion people now lack access to clean water, enough to meet their basic daily needs. The livestock, which sometimes contaminates rivers and groundwater, contributes significantly to the water shortage, since, according to a report published in 2003 by FAO, to produce 1 kg of meat there are consumed about 15,000 liters of water, while it only takes 1,300 liters to produce the same amount of grain, as stated in And not a drop to drink? The freshwater crisis.
A water crisis is a state of water shortage. It is a worrying situation which has emerged, particularly in arid and semiarid regions of the world because people have moved into the area by natural cycles and learn clumsy land use, population trends or problematic political and technical measures have a water shortage. If water is lacking, this may also relate to poor water quality. Although the earth has large quantities of sea water, but this is without desalination technology for people, animals and plants can not be used as water for drinking or washing. The pollution of groundwater or surface water can cause this, and can not be used more for drinking or for irrigation of crops and thus increases the water shortage situation.
A decrease in groundwater levels is caused, for example, by river regulation, groundwater sampling, groundwater barriers or changes in climate can lead to desertification and desertification, as stated in A clean water crisis.
Especially in arid areas and mega cities and metropolitan areas of the developing world resulting from water shortage and pollution health problems: a total of about 5 million people die annually from waterborne diseases such as chronic diarrhea. Worldwide, according to investigations by the UN, about 800 million people live in shortage of drinking water (half of them children), and about 3.2 billion people are not equipped with a sufficiently safe sanitation. The world population is growing – the 2050 forecast by the UN is approximately 8.9 billion global citizens. Thus, the competition grows over access to vital water resources. In the coming years throughout the world there are threats to increase the scarcity of water resources, in 2025 approximately 1.8 billion people may not have sufficient water resources at our disposal.
Recognition of the world water crisis. The Middle East and North Africa today are the regions with the most severe water shortages. In the next 25 years it is expected that this deficiency in Pakistan, Southern Africa, will be extending to large parts of India and China. Thus, the water conflicts between and within countries will increase and eventually lead to wars. Furthermore, there will constitute the conflicts between agriculture, households and industry, and a wasteful use of water for future water management challenges, particularly in emerging and developing countries, as stated in Facing the Freshwater Crisis. In 2002, the UN World Summit in Johannesburg has stressed the outstanding importance of this issue. There, for access to safe water and sanitation targets very challenging (as so-called Millennium Development Goals) lays down: The number of people without access to safe drinking water and sanitation should be halved by 2015. The UN General Assembly, the years from 2005 to 2014 is the International Decade for Action “Water – Source of Life” explains.
Approaches. The water problem is usually associated with economic weakness. This ability is restricted to apply infrastructure, investment and energy costs. Therefore, it is pointless to build central European model expensive and energy-consuming systems of the central water supply unit in the best quality drinking water for all uses, and the central sewage disposal and purification. Rather, such development must help specifically to technology, renewable energy and working as far as possible easily available resources. As an example, one could mention here the solar water distillation, in the wastewater sector adapted and ecological sanitation (Ecosan). For the mega-cities it will be important to find intelligent alternative combinations of supply and disposal technologies and to build them, as described in Facing the Freshwater Crisis.
Water crisis refers to the status of water resources relative to human demand since the 1970’s to the present. The term “water crisis” is used throughout the world by the United Nations to show the situation about the raw water source. The main aspects of the water crisis is a shortage of water resources that can be used, and also water pollution. Our world has a limited amount of clean water that is stored in the soil, the earth’s surface and atmosphere. The general public is sometimes mistakenly assumes that the oceans are a source of water available, but they do not understand the amount of energy required to convert salt water into fresh water, which is still something that is not so easy to do. It happens to be so because this is only a small amount of clean water supply that is taken, as stated in Water in Crisis: A Guide to the World’s Fresh Water Resources. There are several major manifestation of the water crisis. Lack of safe drinking water is perceived by about 1.1 billion people. The use of groundwater can lead to lack of agricultural products. Overuse and pollution of water resources also affect biodiversity.
Regional conflicts are caused by limited water resources, which can lead to war.
Water-borne diseases and lack of sanitation is one of the leading causes of death in the world. For children under age of five, water-borne disease is the leading cause of death. Half of the patients in hospitals are caused by diseases carried by water. According to the World Bank, 88 percent of the diseases are caused by unclean drinking water, lack of sanitation and lack of hygiene. At first manifestation of the water crisis is not so bad, but the growing human population in the 21 century will reduce the quantity of clean water. This was exacerbated by drought disrupt the balance of fresh water, as described in Facing the Freshwater Crisis.
Forests and Water. Forest is one of the important ecosystems because it contains more than 60 percent of global biodiversity. According to A clean water crisis, the importance of forest covers in terms of ecological function of land cover and basin, the economy, the “Lungs of the Earth” because green plants absorb carbon dioxide during photosynthesis and release oxygen into the atmosphere. Forest is also a water catchment areas such as flood control works. Unfortunately, deforestation is rampant forest land is now not only destroy the natural environment but also destroy the “cloud forests” (cloud forest), which may result in loss of precious water resources to destroy the forest hills can cause extensive loss of water resources because without trees, most of the moisture in the air will remain in place until the rain occurs. And without a thick forest area, any moisture in the atmosphere would be exposed to the wind system that will bring moisture to other places and release into the sea.
All in all, we, as a planet can do certain things to preserve fresh water for other generations. People have to respect the resources given by nature and to take care of the environment. Fresh water crisis is a disturbing issue that involves the population of the whole world. Fortunately, nowadays, there are many options to improve the situation and in cooperation to solve the problem.
A clean water crisis. 2010. 24 February 2011. <http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/freshwater/freshwater-crisis>
And not a drop to drink? The freshwater crisis. 1996. 24 February 2011. <http://www.unesco.org/bpi/science/content/press/anglo/10.htm>
Facing the Freshwater Crisis. 2008. 24 February 2011. <http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=facing-the-freshwater-crisis>
Peter. H. Gleick. 1993. Water in Crisis: A Guide to the World’s Fresh Water Resources. Oxford University Press, USA (August 26, 1993). 504 pages. Print.