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Gender in Law Enforcement

Introduction. Gender equality – is the purpose of solving problems of inequality, injustice, many men and women. World organizations relate gender equality to human rights, especially women’s rights, and economic development. UNICEF defines gender as “leveling the playing field for girls and women by ensuring that all children have equal opportunities to develop their talents.” Population Fund, United Nations declared the equality of the sexes “first right of man.”

I. Criminology. Criminology is sociological and legal science, which studies crime, the offender, the causes and circumstances of crime and ways and means of preventing it. Criminology is also a science of a criminal law cycle, which studies the laws directly related to crime and its consequences, the causes of conditions, offender, and are developed based on knowledge of these laws set of measures aimed at combating crime. Methods of criminological research – is a system-specific ways, methods, tools to collect, process, analyze and evaluate information on crime, its causes and circumstances, the identity of the perpetrator, measures to combat crime, criminological methods of predicting its development and planning of measures to combat it, the implementation of the recommendations to improve the practice of crime prevention and the ability to assess the effectiveness of this activity.

A. Integrative Criminology. “Integrative Criminology reacts against single theory or methodology approaches, and as well it adopts an interdisciplinary paradigm for the study of criminology and penology.”
B. City Limits: Crime, Consumerism and the Urban Experience. “City Limits contributes to a growing body of work under the umbrella of ‘cultural criminology’, which attempts to bring an appreciation of cultural change to an understanding of crime in late modernity”. It is essential to understand the crime beyond the boundaries of traditional criminology in order to succeed in the research and to have a positive outcome.

II. Taking Rights Seriously. “Gender equality” – is one of the goals of the Millennium Project of the United Nations, whose task is to end world poverty by 2015, the draft states that “each goal is directly linked to women’s rights and a society where women have equal rights with men, will never achieve sustainable development. ”

A. Women’s rights. The term women’s rights are freedoms and rights of women and girls of all ages. These rights may or may not be institutionalized, ignored or suppressed by law, local customs, and behavior in a given society.

B. Modern concepts of rights. The gender refers to social differences between men and women. It is the social representation of biological sex. It is based on representations (beliefs, ideas, values). That is, gender is the way societies look / think about the males and females, so there is determined the consequence of gender in social organization. There is no overlap between the identities (sex) and gender (social construction), and the same applies to notions of race, class, age and ethnicity.

The contrary concept of gender equality is not gender difference, but to gender inequality, since it assumes statutes, rights and dignity hierarchy between men and women.

Conclusion. Thus, the promotion of equality between men and women is perceived as a call for greater economic prosperity. For example, the Arab world who deny the equality of opportunities for women have been warned by a UN report in 2008 that this lawlessness is a major impediment to these countries to return the global leaders in commerce, education and culture.

 

References
Barak, G. (ed.). (1998). Integrative Criminology. Aldershot: Ashgate/Dartmouth.
Brantingham, P. J. and Brantingham, P. L. (1991). Environmental Criminology. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press.
Dworkin, R. (2005). Taking Rights Seriously. Harvard University Press.
Hayward, K. J. (2004). City Limits: Crime, Consumerism and the Urban Experience. New York: Routledge,
Siegel, L. J. (2003). Criminology, 8th edition. New York: Thomson-Wadsworth.