In today’s world, every state has its own law. The law of different countries is formulated in different languages, uses different technology and is designed for societies with very different structures, rules and beliefs. Thus, we are going to discuss United States criminal justice system.
First of all it is necessary to define main terms of our discussion. According to Cochrane, Melville and Marsh, “criminal justice is a process, involving a series of steps beginning with a criminal investigation and ending with the release of a convicted offender from correctional supervision” (Cochrane, Melville and Marsh, 2004). The center of criminal justice process includes not only specific rules, but it also consists of decision making process which allows to understand not only the matter of one or other case, but it also allows to find appropriate punishment to offender. In such a way, previously stated definition allows to continue our discussion with Cohn’s, Farrington’s and Wright’s words, who said that “a criminal justice system is a set of legal and social institutions for enforcing the criminal law in accordance with a defined set of procedural rules and limitations” (Cohn’s, Farrington’s and Wright’s, 1998).
Nowadays courts have a special place in the U.S., and people sometimes mean it as a joke that ‘a whole American history can be retold by the language of court cases’. Such situation has a place primarily because the U.S. Supreme Court in a number of reasons is a very effective tool for giving a sound for an archaic constitutional provisions and legislation, corresponding to the nature and needs of the era. It means that U.S. court is not in the usual framework of dispute resolution on the law in its reality, and is actively involved in resolving political, economic and social problems. In the United States a criminal justice system is separated in several parts such as federal, state and military criminal justice system, making differences for different ages, that means that each state has its own separate justice systems for juveniles and adults. Also criminal justice system can be marked out by absence of discrimination, because any person who is dealing with the criminal justice system (it can be a victim of some crime, a witness of some case or an offender) should be sure that his/her rights will be treated fairly in spite of everything, without discrimination and other type of prejudice.
Thinking about main actors of criminal justice system in the United Stated it is also necessary to mention that courts are not only its main component, because the police who investigate a big percent of crimes and the lawyers who prosecute criminal cases or the judges who look for the decision in one or other case are also integral part of the criminal justice system. It is impossible imagine only the police, the lawyers or the judges thinking about criminal justice system, because any step of investigation needs its specific professional who will help to find an answer to all questions, helping people to protect their rights.
Thus, taking everything into consideration it is necessary to conclude that criminal justice system is a specific kind of systems that refers to the court system for the purpose of to find an answer about person’s guiltiness and the prison or jail system, when the speech is going about punishment for a crime. Criminal justice system was created specially for protecting people from the violation of their rights and observing existed situation we can say that it executes own job successfully.
Cochrane, J., Melville, G. and Marsh, I. Criminal Justice: An Introduction to Philosophies, Theories and Practice. Routledge, 2004.
Cohn, E., Farrington, D. and Wright, R. Evaluating Criminology and Criminal Justice. Greenwood Press, 1998.