Introduction to United States economic sanctions against Japan, including an embargo on petroleum products, made war inevitable. Japan faced a choice – to choke in the ring of the economic blockade, or with honor die trying to get in a fight it needs resources.
Attack Pearl Harbor (Pearl Bay), or Japanese sources, the Hawaiian operation – is a sudden attack by a Japanese combo deck aviation aircraft carrier connections, Vice-Admiral Nagumo Tyuiti and Japanese midget submarines, delivered to the site of attack submarines, the Japanese Imperial Navy, the U.S. military naval and air bases in the vicinity of Pearl Harbor on Oahu, Hawaii, which occurred Sunday morning, December 7, 1941.
As a result of the attack on the naval base at Pearl Harbor, the U.S. was forced to declare war on Japan and enter the World War II. Attack was a preventive measure against the United States aimed at eliminating the U.S. Navy, gaining dominance in the air in the Pacific region and the subsequent warfare against Burma, Thailand, the western U.S. possessions in the Pacific Ocean. Attack consisted of two air raids, as described in Why did Japan attack US?
The attack sank four U.S. Navy battleships (two of which have been restored and returned to service in the war’s end), four more were damaged. The Japanese also sank or damaged three cruisers, three destroyers, mine-layer, destroyed 188-272 planes (according to different sources); casualties – 2,402 killed and 1,282 wounded. Power plant, shipyard, fuel and torpedo storage, piers, and building of the main control of the attack were not injured. Japanese losses were minimal: 29 aircraft, 4 small-sized submarines, together with 65 killed or injured military personnel.
Attack on Pearl Harbor was the main reason the U.S. entered the World War II. Because of the attacks, particularly because of its nature, public opinion in America has changed dramatically with the isolationist position in mid-1930s to direct participation in hostilities. On December 8, 1941, U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt addressed the joint session of both chambers of Congress. The President demanded from 7 December, with the “day that will go down in history as a symbol of shame,” to declare war on Japan. Congress passed a resolution, as stated in Cause of the Pearl Harbor Attack.
All in all, the attack of Pearl Harbor caused a lot of controversy. Principal Japanese general knew that for a compelling victory over the United States there was a need to break the U.S. Pacific Fleet, landing on the West Coast and fighting their way to get to Washington, that the ratio of economic and military potential of the two countries was totally unrealistic. Forced under pressure from the political elite to join the war, they have relied upon their only chance – with one powerful blow to inflict unacceptable damage on the United States and force them to sign a peace on terms favorable to Japan’s conditions.
Cause of the Pearl Harbor Attack. 2010. 8 March 2011. <http://www.truth-it.net/cause_of_the_pearl_harbor_attack.html>
Why did Japan attack US? 2011. 8 March 2011. <http://www.theamericancause.org/patwhydidjapan.htm>