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Bone Mineral Density Response to Caloric Restriction

It is known that today many people pay special attention to the problem of overweight and obesity. However, not all the people know that weight loss can lead to bone loss. According to the statistical data, bone loss causes more than 1.5 million fractures every year in the USA. Although the vast majority of fractures connected with bone loss are not life-threatening, it is better to take preventive measures in order to avoid bone loss. This paper discusses the problem of bone loss and its consequences. Moreover, the information represented in this paper helps to find out that exercise-induced weight loss accompanies less bone loss compared with caloric restriction weight loss.

Nowadays, many adults in the United States have the problem of overweight. Some dieting experts are sure that “lifestyle modifications, involving low calorie diet and regular exercises” can be the best therapy for obese and overweight people. (Silvermann, 2004, p.72) It is known that body weight can influence body mineral density which is considered to be the major predictor of osteoporotic fractures. Thus, it is found that increased body weight is connected with decreased bone loss, while decreased body weight leads to serious changes in the bones. Besides, increased body weight can cause serious changes in all systems of human body resulting in hypertension, diabetes, heart problems and so on. (Hedley, 2002, p.142)

The study conducted by the specialists of Washington University School of Medicine prove the fact that weight loss can lead to serious problems with bones, including bone loss, and significant decreases in bone mineral density (BMD). The article Bone Mineral Density Response to Caloric Restriction – Induced Weight Loss or Exercise-induced Weight Loss represents the results of this study. 48 adults, who were divided into three groups: calorie restriction control group, regular exercise group and healthy lifestyle control group, helped to find the answer to the main question of the study. The results proved that body weight can decrease both in CR group and EX group, but it was not changed in HL group. However, calorie restriction caused serious decreases in BMD, while regular exercises helped to preserve body mineral density. The authors of the article state that exercised-induced weight loss has more important advantages over calorie restriction-induced weight loss because it protects against bone loss. Moreover, they recommend everyone who wants to lose weight to combine the above mentioned methods in order to get better results. This study helps to make an effective weight loss program where special attention should be paid to the role of regular exercises. (Villareal, 2006, p.2502)

I completely agree with the authors of the article concerning the significance of body weight control in the life of all people. I think that it is necessary to control the weight of the body and to pay special attention to the food we eat. Of course, it is better to eat only low calorie food which helps to control body weight. (Patlak, 2001, p.321)

Moreover, it is necessary to do physical exercises regularly. Besides, in order to avoid problems with bones, it is recommended to reduce emotional stresses and to eat food which contains much calcium and vitamins, such as nonfat dairy products, green vegetables, ripe fruits, nuts and fish. (Rutherford, 2011, para.4)



Hedley, A., Ogden, S., Johnson, S. (2002) Prevalence of Overweight and Obesidy among US Children, Adolescents and Adults. Jama.Vol.292.
Patlak M (2001). Bone builders: the discoveries behind preventing and treating osteoporosis. FASEB J. 15 (10).
Rutherford, H. (2011) What Minerals Are Needed to Prevent Bone Loss? Livestrong.com. July 9, 2011. Retrieved from:< http://www.livestrong.com/article/488205-what-minerals-are-needed-to-prevent-bone-loss/?utm_source=popslideshow&utm_medium=a1>
Silvermann, S. (2004) Osteoporosis self-management: Choices For Better Bone Health. Southern Medical Journal. Retrieved from: <http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Osteoporosis+selfmanagement%3a+Choices+For+Better+Bone+Health.-a0119226535>
Villareal, D., Fontana, L., Weiss, E., Racette, C., Steger-May, K., Schetchman, K., Klein, S., Holloszy, J. (2006) Bone Mineral Density Response to Caloric Restriction – Induced Weight Loss or Exercise-induced Weight Loss. Arch Intern Med. Vol. 166. Retrieved
from:< http://archinte.ama-assn.org/cgi/reprint/166/22/2502>