The aim is to identify the main arguments of assimilation and integration of the separatists, as well as the need to open the idea of nationalist thought African-Americans in the U.S., the idea of equality and independence, the idea that will be the most successful strategy for the life of a normal healthy society in the past, present and in the future.
In general, African-Americans have experienced a shift in its ethnic and cultural identity, as previously they were a completely different community in terms of language, religion and culture.
In this case, we will not talk about the voluntary enthusiasm of an entire nation to another, more advanced and attractive culture, and the forced and even violent nature of conquest, extermination and numerical displacement, always put down any cultural and linguistic expression.
At the time of Columbus’ North America was inhabited by numerous Indian tribes, held various stages of development of the generic society. On the Atlantic coast, where the first events of the colonial U.S. history took place – from the Gulf of St. Lawrence to Cape Hatteras – lived Indians Algonquian language group. The level of their tribal culture rose in a southerly direction: from small scattered tribes of hunters and gatherers to hunters and farmers, united in a confederation of tribes. In the seventeenth and early eighteenth century, a wave of emigration was one of the greatest journeys of people of Europe to America in the history of mankind. This movement of people, driven by powerful and diverse motivations to step into uncharted continent had its own character and destiny. The United States today is the product of two main forces, immigration of European nations with their diverse ideas, traditions and national characteristics and the impact of new countries that clearly have their own cultural traits in society.
Colonial America was a projection of Europe. On the other side of the Atlantic came the successive groups of Englishmen, Frenchmen, Germans, Scots, Irish, Dutch, Swedes, and many others who tried to inculcate the habits and traditions in the new world.
American coast was beckoning the travelers with its extraordinary air, there was a lot of raw materials for houses and furniture for the building of ships, it was remarkably rich gifts of nature, and trade with Europe was vital for the settlers until they have learned to make everything necessary by themselves. Coast gave plenty of opportunities for immigrants, as it had numerous bays and harbors. Within a century, the colonists built their settlements compactly along the east coast.
In each colony there were descendants of former forced laborers or their children. Of the settlers who came to America in the first three quarters of the seventeenth century, the vast majority spoke in English. There was the influence of the Dutch, Swedes, Germans and French Huguenots language in South Carolina and elsewhere. The influence of the Spaniards, Italians and Portuguese was everywhere. But it is only ten percent of the total population.
Afro-American experience and their struggle for civil rights
African-American experience spans over 400 years, beginning with the opening of the American continent, Europeans and the establishment of the transatlantic slave’s trade and to these days.
Many of the ancestors of African-Americans were kidnapped at a young age from West Africa. They were tied up, carried on ships across the ocean to be sold to a slave market. African-Americans have a significant role in the cotton fields, which was the main economics of the South. Number of slaves increased prosperity through the transatlantic slave trade that was certainly beneficial to white Europeans, the slave owners.
The struggle of ancestors of African-Americans for their civil rights takes its origin from the enslavement of black people. Hope for exemption had lived in their hearts.
It was a society in the struggle against slavery in 1833. Frederick Douglass, former slave who became a good speaker the liberation from slavery. He was known not only at home but also abroad.
Slave labor and the dependence of the South from the North led to the secession and civil war. President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Act. But north of the country did not want this equality and the neighborhood. Racial unrest mutilated America in 1919.
Because of the Ku Klux Klan and the rule of Jim Crow in the years 1930-1970 there was a great migration of African-Americans to the north of the country to work in factories. White colonialists were against equality. The civil war between the democratic North and slave-owning South was imminent. The bloody war has claimed more than 600,000 lives for 4 years and ended with the formal surrender of the South, which was signed in 1865. Slavery was abolished; millions of black people were given their freedom and constitutional rights. But racial discrimination has continued.
In addition, the country maintains de facto racial discrimination in hiring, promotion and pay, which resulted in the average hourly wage of black workers, is much lower wages of white workers and their median income was less than white Americans one.
During the presidency of Franklin Roosevelt, who was fighting against the Great Depression, he made a number of important laws, which defended the rights of employees. Black Americans were engaged in unskilled labor and the new laws, in fact, affirm the status quo. Experts from law enforcement agencies argue that immigrants and their children are often faced with injustice of the authorities towards them. The police often stopped black Americans on the street.
This growth of Black Nationalism is reflected in the activities of some black organizations (including the speakers earlier in the integration) and churches, as well as a number of black writers, artists, and musicians. Contributes to it, and the growing isolation of large numbers of blacks in the black ghettos, became a hotbed of unemployment, poverty, desperation and hunger.
Deepening of assimilation, the consolidation of national unity, as mentioned above, are accompanied in the period after World War II, increasing ethnocentrism in all ethnic groups, the rise of ethnic consciousness. Martin Luther King was the great fighter for the rights of Afro-Americans and against the racial discrimination.
The 1930’s are generally regarded as the Great Depression. Now we have a similar situation in the world when the global crisis is gripping the world, but many countries have successfully overcome the crisis.
In June 1930 the U.S. adopted the so-called Smoot-Hawley tariff, which introduces 40-percent duty on imports to protect domestic market. This measure has become a major transmission channel of the crisis in Europe, as sales of products of European manufacturers in the U.S. were difficult.
To exit from the crisis in 1933 launched a new course of Roosevelt – the various measures aimed at regulating the economy. Some of them are modern concepts have helped to eliminate the causes of the Great Depression, some were socially oriented, helping the most affected survival, other measures have exacerbated the situation.
Almost immediately after taking office in March 1933, Roosevelt had to deal with the third wave of bank runs, on which the new president reacted to the closure of banks for a week and preparing for this time of the deposit guarantee program.
Unemployed people are actively involved in community service. Public works under the auspices of the Public Works Administration (PWA) and the administration of Civil Works Civil Works Administration – CBA – is the construction of canals, roads, bridges, often uninhabited and swampy malarial areas), number of employees on public works reached 4 million.
After the buyout by the state of gold at a fixed price, based on the law of the gold reserve, adopted in January 1934, January 31, 1934 Roosevelt issued a proclamation, which reduces the gold content of the dollar from 25.8 to 15 5 / 21 grains and has established the official price of gold at 35 dollars per ounce. In other words, the dollar was devalued by 41%.
Was written 557 major and 189 additional so-called “codes of fair competition in various industries. Hand to guarantee a minimum wage, as well as a single salary for all workers of one category. These codes have covered 95% of all industrial workers. Such codes greatly restrict competition.
Methods Roosevelt dramatically increases the role of government, seen as an attack on the U.S. Constitution. In 1935 the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the National Administration of rehabilitation and introduces her legislation (National Industrial Recovery Act, NIRA) unconstitutional. The reason was the actual abolition of this act many of the antitrust laws and to establish trade unions a monopoly on hiring employees.
The State strongly intruded into the sphere of education, health, guarantee minimum living standards, has assumed the obligation to ensure the elderly, the disabled, the poor. The federal government in the years 1932-1940 more than doubled. However, Roosevelt feared an unbalanced budget and expenditures for 1937, when the economy seemed to have gained sufficient momentum has been reduced. This again plunged the country into recession, 1937-1938.
The index of industrial production in 1939 amounted to only 90% of the level of 1932. In 1939, unemployment was still at 17%. Some suggest that the cause of the Great Depression was the Second World War, which caused massive purchases of government weapons. The rapid growth of American industry began only in 1939-1941. in the wake of the active capacity of military preparations.
Now, most economists believed that the crisis in the U.S. have exacerbated the wrong actions of the authorities. Classics monetarist Milton Friedman and Anna Schwartz believed that the Fed is to blame for creating a “crisis of confidence” as time banks were not assisted, and a wave of bankruptcies. Measures to increase lending to banks, similar to those taken since 1932, according to them, could be taken before – in 1930 or 1931. In 2002, a board member of the Federal Reserve, Ben Bernanke, speaking at the 90-anniversary of Milton Friedman, said: “Allow me a little abused by my status as an official representative of the Federal Reserve. I would like to say to Milton and Anna (Schwartz) Regarding the Great Depression – you’re right, we did. And we are very disappointed. But thanks to you we do not do it again. ”
In three weeks, the nightmare the U.S. losses exceeded all expenses for the years of World War I amounted to about $ 30 billion at the time, that is one-third of national income.
According to the calculations of economists and researchers of the Great Depression Cole and Ohaniana, no measures of the Roosevelt administration to curb competition, the recovery in 1939 could be reached five years earlier.
It is interesting that during the global financial crisis beginning in 2007-2008, the U.S. used very similar methods of dealing with the progress and impact of the recession. There was redemption of government bonds, by the way very skyrocketing in price, as well as the steady decline in Fed rates. Money supply was no longer tied to gold reserves, which allowed the inclusion of “printing press”, although this fact is undeniable not arguable and because of classified information since 2006. Similarity and errors committed during the crisis. So there has been a failure of Lehman Brothers and after the Great Depression was the assumption of bank bankruptcies recognized a major miscalculation.
For the prosperity of the country, there is a need to advance technology, war, education and medicine; all this is possible only through the discovery scientists. Scientists have always played an important role in the success of countries. Their contribution to their nation and humanity as a whole is excellent. When we think about scientists, it is impossible to ignore, even for a moment that the fee and services were made by black scholars and the Afro-American scientists at that influenced how the development of science and technology have brought the descendants of Africa in the world.
As a result, it is safe to say that African-Americans have been a thorny path very difficult opportunism and assimilation to American culture, although they have created themselves, and for themselves, according to their fundamental interests, traditions and customs. They have their own system of values and goals, which united them, they are: the elimination of racism, the realization of democratic rights and social justice in racial pluralistic, multicultural and multiethnic society, and an achievement of the cultural integrity of African-American community.
African-Americans never wanted to make slaves other people. They only were fighting for their rights and freedom. After all people on earth are all equal, but not all understand it or want to understand. Many political and social organizations also support this idea. Many of the heroes for justice and freedom lost their lives. We talked about Abraham Lincoln and the Martin Luther King. Many representatives of this government are also carrying this idea to people, being missionaries, ambassadors of goodwill. Moreover, this belief’s system of human equality has been and always will be very successful and relevant not only for representatives of African descent, but also for all mankind. No one knows how to live. No one knows how many years our planet will exist. We’re only human; we are guests on this planet. And if we want our planet was real, was our sweet house, then we must become a real family – such a big multinational and multi-lingual family, which will have the same direction and will work for ourselves and our future children, but not to destroy what we have. Peace of the world! This is not just a phrase; these words are true values of all humanity on this earth!